tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-18097599920472039502021-12-12T11:28:01.820-06:00The Mental Munition FactoryAnalysis and reports from Matthew Schroyer on drones, sensors, data, and making atoms from bits.Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comBlogger103125tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-78902011467071528822016-03-13T12:34:00.000-05:002016-04-14T10:45:42.196-05:00Working with PhotoScan in the cloud<div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-N4DQ_LgNzJA/VuSoS7lQZrI/AAAAAAAADS0/CfDbP-uOZxM4BKALvTTeUg12kUUBZP-PQ/s1600/amazonPhotoscan.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="258" src="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-N4DQ_LgNzJA/VuSoS7lQZrI/AAAAAAAADS0/CfDbP-uOZxM4BKALvTTeUg12kUUBZP-PQ/s640/amazonPhotoscan.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br />Back in 2012 when I first started flying drones to make high-resolution photomaps (e.g., <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2012/10/journalism-drone-development-aerial.html">strapping a first-generation GoPro to the bottom of a balsa-wood DIY drone and hoping for the best</a>), there were few options for processing the photos.<br /><br />Basically, if you didn't have access to $2,000 software, you only had Microsoft Image Composite Editor (ICE) to stitch together the photos into mosaics. Fortunately, much has changed since then.<br /><br />In a window of just two years, a number of software solutions became available.&nbsp;<a href="http://ccwu.me/vsfm/">VisualFSM</a>&nbsp;brought free, open-source photogrammetry to tech-savvy hobbyists and researchers. There was&nbsp;<a href="http://www.123dapp.com/catch">Autodesk's 123D</a> catch, which could be used with drone imagery in a pinch. <a href="https://www.pix4d.com/">Pix4D</a> came about in 2011, which later gained a huge market share in the professional UAS space. I won't get into all the options, <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_photogrammetry_software">but there's a fairly comprehensive table on Wikipedia that you might wish to look at</a>.<br /><br />The solution I use most often today is Agisoft PhotoScan. The feature set of the standard version is somewhat limited compared to solutions designed specifically for UAS use, but it's also easy to use, the software license is comparatively cheap, and it runs on ordinary desktop machines.<br /><br />Many photogrammetry services are run in the cloud (123D catch, Pix4D, DroneMapper), which has its benefits. You don't have to upgrade your machine to run complex models. You don't have to tie up a computer for hours while it's processing 500-1,000 photos. You can start a job in another country, send your images to the cloud instance, and by the time you arrive back home, your job can be done.<br /><br />But processing in the cloud can mean paying fees by the month or by the job. If you like paying a one-time fee for a license, the cloud may not be the most attractive solution.<br /><br />Thankfully, PhotoScan can be run in the cloud. While it does mean incurring hourly fees for computer time and cloud storage, it can also help in a pinch when you're working on an especially large project.<br /><br /><a name='more'></a>Lately, I've been making use of <a href="http://aws.amazon.com/">Amazon Web Services</a> (AWS) <a href="https://aws.amazon.com/ec2/">Elastic Compute Cloud</a> (EC2). It's a cloud hosting service for on-demand computing, and it's pretty spiffy. It's as simple as launching an instance, accessing the instance through a Windows Remote Desktop Connection, setting up the job, and waiting for it to complete.<br /><br />AWS offers many types of instances, but the ones you want to use for PhotoScan are the <a href="https://aws.amazon.com/ec2/instance-types/#gpu">G2 instances</a>. The base G2 instance,&nbsp;g2.2xlarge, uses a <a href="http://www.nvidia.com/object/cloud-gaming-gpu-boards.html">NVIDIA GRID K520 GPU</a> and gives you 15 GB of RAM.<br /><br />That's just fine for some projects, but for larger projects (500-1,000 photos), you'll want to splash out on a&nbsp;g2.8xlarge instance. That gives you four GRID GPUs and 60 GB of RAM to work with. That's likely more than what you've got at home.<br /><br />You'll have your choice of operating systems to run on these instances. PhotoScan does come in a Linux version, and if you know a thing or two about Linux you can probably tweak more performance out of your instance by changing a few settings.<br /><br />Personally, I stick to G2 instances that are loaded with Windows Server 2012 R2. It's much easier to get up and running, if you're already used to working with PhotoScan on a Windows machine. You can copy any file on your local machine and paste it into the Remote Desktop just like anything else.<br /><br /><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/Px7ZPLq4AOU" width="560"></iframe> <br /><br />Amazon provides some fairly good video tutorials on how to work inside the EC2 service, so I won't get into that. But I will provide some tips from what I've learned from using PhotoScan inside G2 instances.<br /><br /><h2>Create an AMI of your own</h2><br />After you set up your instance exactly the way you want it (installing the K520 driver and PhotoScan), exit your remote desktop connection and create an image of the instance (an AMI). This way, instead of having to copy over and install those items each time you want to run an instance, you already have a custom image ready to go. This will save you time and money.<br /><br />In "Instances," right click the instance that you want to image, and click "image &gt; create image" from the drop-down menu. Name it something memorable. If you create a g2.2 AMI, you can actually launch this on g2.8 hardware, so there's no reason to have two separate AMIs (I've actually had difficulty re-launching an AMI created in a g2.8 instance on g2.8 hardware for some reason -- haven't fount out why just yet).<br /><br /><h2>The EBS is your friend</h2><br />Keep your work out of the root drive, and keep it in an Elastic Block Store (EBS) Volume, so that you can work with the volume in both G2 and G8 instances. The first time you create a G2 instance, add one storage drive (an EBS volume) in addition to the root drive you're given. Store your PhotoScan images and files in this volume; not the root drive.<br /><br />If you go on to launch a g2.8 instance, create the instance with the root drive only. Don't create any additional EBS volumes. Simply launch your instance, and after it is running, add the volume you created with the G2 instance. You can do this by going to "Volumes" under "Elastic Block Storage" in the EC2 dashboard, selecting the volume you created with the G2 instance, and choosing "Attach Volume." Your volumes will have to be in the same "availability zone" as your instances.<br /><br />After attaching, you'll have to go inside your instance's Disk Management (right click the Windows start button, select "Disk Manager") to mount the volume. Right click the volume, and select "Online" to mount the volume. You're now able to work with all the files you worked with in the G2 instance, but now on a much faster machine.<br /><br />One last thing about storage. An instance will not only create EBS volumes to store root drives and other storage, it will also create snapshots of those volumes. A snapshot is a copy of a volume at a point in time. This is great if something happens to an image or a volume -- you can restore it right up to when you made the snapshot. But the snapshots also take up just as much space as the volumes they were taken from, and you are billed for this space just like the volumes.<br /><br />If you're working on any small-scale, short-term projects, you might be willing to save a few bucks by deleting some of those snapshots. In your EC2 dashboard, go to "Snapshots" under "Elastic Block Store" to check your current snapshot situation and clean house if need be.<br /><br /><h2>Set your instance to shut down automatically</h2><br />If you're running a large project that could take many hours, you probably don't want to babysit the project for the whole time. I mean, that's a big reason why you wanted this computed in the cloud, right? So set up a CloudWatch alarm that will stop your instance after PhotoScan is done processing.<br /><br />The most simple way of doing this is creating an alarm that stops your instance when the CPU utilization falls below 10 percent for a certain period of time. Set this by selecting an instance, and click the "Monitoring" tab. Then click "Create Alarm."<br /><br />Keep in mind that you can't stop an instance unless it is backed by an EBS volume, which usually means you'll have to make an image of your instance first. So resist the urge to dive into a PhotoScan project before first making an image of your instance.<br /><br />Whenever your instance is stopped, your billing stops as well. But keep in mind that every time your instance changes from "stopped" to "running," you get billed one hour of compute time. Don't create scenarios where your image is constantly stopping and restarting. If you're setting an alarm based on CPU utilization, make sure you're done fiddling around with settings and PhotoScan before you set the alarm - lest your alarm go off before you've started anything.<br /><br />Setting an alarm can be tricky. When you set an alarm, AWS doesn't just start counting time and CPU utilization then. It considers the time leading up to when you created the alarm. So if your CPU has been idling for the past 10 minutes, and you set an alarm to stop the instance if it's been idling for 10 minutes, you can bet your instance probably will be stopped right after you set the alarm. Aim for a longer window, and make sure you're not going to trigger the alarm immediately after you create it.<br /><br />If you are setting an alarm, you're probably also going to set PhotoScan to run a batch of processes all at once (aligning, dense cloud, mesh, texture, etc). Make sure PhotoScan is automatically saving after each of these steps. Your progress will be saved in the EBS volume you're using in the instance. If your instance gets stopped and nothing is saved, your progress may be lost, and you'll have to start all over again.<br /><br />If your instance is stopped, you can re-start it by right-clicking the instance and choosing "Instance State &gt; Start." However, if you're about to re-start a stopped instance to take a look at your PhotoScan results, delete the previous alarm so your instance won't stop while you're trying to touch-up the product.<br /><br /><h2>What kind of performance can I expect?</h2><br />I tested the performance of both G2 instances against my home computer, which a machine with an AMD FX-8320 8-core, 3.5 GHz processor, with 16 GB RAM, and an ATI Radeon R7 260X GPU. The job was a 10.2 MP, 58-image scan of a dinosaur fossil. PhotoScan processing settings were the stock settings from a fresh install.<br /><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-T9XA1jRyUM8/VuTIvdiO9OI/AAAAAAAADTE/NIrM-T4VpO0jvx4aAW3JQkMhmiQ-yygig/s1600/ec2desktopComparo.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="396" src="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-T9XA1jRyUM8/VuTIvdiO9OI/AAAAAAAADTE/NIrM-T4VpO0jvx4aAW3JQkMhmiQ-yygig/s640/ec2desktopComparo.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br />In terms of total processing time, from alignment to texture, g2.8xlarge instance bested the desktop by 22%, and beat the g2.2xlarge by 33%. In sparse cloud construction, the g2.2xlarge instance processed&nbsp;116.764 million samples/sec, whereas the desktop processed&nbsp;292.776 million samples/sec, and the g2.8xlarge processed&nbsp;436.901 million samples/sec.<br /><br />There was a catch, however. The g2.2xlarge instance was $0.65 an hour to run, while the g2.8xlarge instance was $2.60 an hour. So while the latter completed the job sooner, the former cost less overall. The g2.2xlarge cost $0.46 to complete the model, while the beefier g2.8xlarge cost $1.23 (not including setup costs, time it takes to transfer files into and from Remote Desktop, etc.).<br /><br />I haven't yet collected enough data to explain how this scales up with larger image sets. It could very well be that g2.8xlarge is more cost-effective if you are running very large sets of images. After all, it has 60 GB of RAM to play with. In any event, I'll let you know what I find out.<br /><br />Here's the dinosaur fossil, by the way:<br /><br /><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="480" mozallowfullscreen="true" onmousewheel="" src="https://sketchfab.com/models/c8fee7a21dbc465d8fae98a0df4d190e/embed" webkitallowfullscreen="true" width="640"></iframe><br /><div style="color: #4a4a4a; font-size: 13px; font-weight: normal; margin: 5px;"><a href="https://sketchfab.com/models/c8fee7a21dbc465d8fae98a0df4d190e?utm_medium=embed&amp;utm_source=website&amp;utm_campain=share-popup" style="color: #1caad9; font-weight: bold;" target="_blank">Coelophysis</a> by <a href="https://sketchfab.com/mschroyer?utm_medium=embed&amp;utm_source=website&amp;utm_campain=share-popup" style="color: #1caad9; font-weight: bold;" target="_blank">Matthew Schroyer</a> on <a href="https://sketchfab.com/?utm_medium=embed&amp;utm_source=website&amp;utm_campain=share-popup" style="color: #1caad9; font-weight: bold;" target="_blank">Sketchfab</a></div><br />Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-189720521947831142016-02-27T14:30:00.000-06:002016-05-26T11:42:16.356-05:00Scraping crowd-sourced shake reports to produce a cumulative shake map for Oklahoma earthquakes<iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="520" mozallowfullscreen="" msallowfullscreen="" oallowfullscreen="" src="https://mschroyer.cartodb.com/viz/d9fc8934-be34-11e5-a03b-0e8c56e2ffdb/embed_map" webkitallowfullscreen="" width="100%"></iframe> <br /><div align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Last year, Oklahoma had more earthquakes than ever before. In 2015, the Oklahoma Geological Survey (OGS) counted 5,691 earthquakes<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn1" name="_ednref1" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[1]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a> centered in the state. That’s 270 more quakes than what Oklahoma experienced in 2014.<o:p></o:p></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><a href="https://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1809759992047203950" imageanchor="1" style="clear: right; float: right; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-left: 1em;"></a><a href="https://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1809759992047203950" imageanchor="1" style="clear: right; float: right; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-left: 1em;"></a><a href="https://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1809759992047203950" imageanchor="1" style="clear: right; float: right; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-left: 1em;"></a><a href="https://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1809759992047203950" imageanchor="1" style="clear: right; float: right; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-left: 1em;"></a><a href="https://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1809759992047203950" imageanchor="1" style="clear: right; float: right; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-left: 1em;"></a><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Along with more reports of earthquakes, came more reports of earthquake damage<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn2" name="_ednref2" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[2]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>. In one of the worst earthquake swarms in 2015, a chimney was torn from a house in Edmond<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn3" name="_ednref3" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[3]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>, and an exterior wall of bricks came tumbling down from an apartment complex in northeast Oklahoma City<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn4" name="_ednref4" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[4]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>.&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">Much has been learned since Oklahoma's earthquake surge began in 2009.&nbsp;</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Scientists now link these earthquakes to the injection of waste water into deep disposal wells<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn5" name="_ednref5" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[5]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>. Water exists naturally in the earth along with oil and gas deposits, and when the oil and gas is drawn from the earth, the water comes with it. This water is separated from the oil and gas, and is disposed of in deep wells. Because these quakes are caused by human activities, they are known as “induced earthquakes.”<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn6" name="_ednref6" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[6]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a><o:p></o:p></span></span><br /><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn6" name="_ednref6" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></span></span></a></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Many questions remain, however. Namely, what are the long-term effects of having so many small earthquakes so frequently? And how is it possible to compare the impact of these quakes across Oklahoma? The United States Geological Survey produces damage estimates automatically after significant earthquakes, but it does not produce damage estimates for swarms of smaller earthquakes, which may last for months or years.<o:p></o:p></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"></span><br /><a name='more'></a><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><h3><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">The difficult task of measuring a quake</span></h3><div><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-ay78aw858g8/VtHYJc0R27I/AAAAAAAADRs/g7HAViBdhX0/s1600/EdmondDamage.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="360" src="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-ay78aw858g8/VtHYJc0R27I/AAAAAAAADRs/g7HAViBdhX0/s640/EdmondDamage.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><i><br /></i></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><i>An earthquake swarm in Edmond, OK, caused significant property damage for some homes in December, 2015. Photo by OKC station News9.</i></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Instead of damage assessments, the public usually is told that an earthquake is a “Magnitude 4.0,” or “Magnitude 2.5,” or some other number. Magnitude is a way to measure the size of an earthquake and compare it to historic earthquakes. But what does magnitude really mean?<o:p></o:p></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">The answer has to do with the instruments that scientists use to record quakes. Seismometers are instruments that measure ground motion, and the charts they produce are called seismograms. Even though the public may not know how to interpret a seismogram, most people associate the tell-tale “squiggly” line of a seismogram with an earthquake.<o:p></o:p></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Magnitude is a measurement of earthquake strength based on the maximum amplitude recorded by seismometers (the maximum “height” of the “squiggle”) and the duration of the quake (length of the “squiggle”)<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn7" name="_ednref7" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[7]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>. Ultimately, this magnitude is based on the energy released during an earthquake.<o:p></o:p></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-rU3K5vzWKKg/VtHZOhBG4hI/AAAAAAAADR0/XrRaDynYN6w/s1600/calculating%2Bmagnitude%2BM7-8.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="478" src="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-rU3K5vzWKKg/VtHZOhBG4hI/AAAAAAAADR0/XrRaDynYN6w/s640/calculating%2Bmagnitude%2BM7-8.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><i>Interpretation of magnitude from an electronic seismogram. The amplitude and period of the waveform are used to calculate earthquake magnitude, along with the distance between the recording instrument and the earthquake epicenter. Image by L. Braile of Purdue University, of an electronic recording of a magnitude 7.8 earthquake in Colima, Mexico on January 22, 2003.</i></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Scientists have said before that magnitude is difficult for people to comprehend<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn8" name="_ednref8" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[8]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>, and some of the confusion lies in the fact that magnitude is logarithmically scaled. In other words, a magnitude 4.0 earthquake actually is 32 times larger than a magnitude 3.0 quake.<o:p></o:p></span></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">For example, the magnitude 5.6 quake that struck Prague, Oklahoma in 2011, the largest ever recorded in the state, was 31,623 times larger than the average Oklahoma earthquake in 2015 (a magnitude 2.6, according to USGS data)<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn9" name="_ednref9" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[9]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>. The Prague quake destroyed six homes, and 20 homes sustained damage averaging $80,000 each<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn10" name="_ednref10" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[10]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>. Approximately 20 miles from the epicenter, in Shawnee, a brick turret atop Benedictine Hall at St. Gregory’s University toppled. From reports by citizens, we know a single magnitude 2.6 quake might only be felt by those within 10 miles from the earthquake (more on that later).<o:p></o:p></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">If damage estimates aren’t available, how would it be possible to compare areas that are experiencing different numbers of earthquakes, earthquakes of different magnitudes, and earthquakes of varying distances? If a town is near four magnitude 3.0 earthquakes, is it better or worse off than a town that has a single 4.0 quake that is farther away?<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Measuring the total amount of ground movement can provide some insight into the local impact of quakes over time<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn11" name="_ednref11" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[11]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>. Earthquakes generate a series of waves of energy that travel through rock and soil, and the energy from each wave can be recorded and summed over time. Engineers look at this information, called Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV), in determining whether ground motion could be damaging to buildings. The measurement could even form the basis for early warning and response systems<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn12" name="_ednref12" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[12]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>.<o:p></o:p></span></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Unlike magnitude, CAV is not a measurement of the strength of an earthquake. Rather, it is the measurement of the effects of an earthquake at a particular location, such as an office building or a nuclear power plant. Usually a critical structure, such as a nuclear power plant, is equipped with instruments to record the ground motion<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn13" name="_ednref13" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[13]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>. While there is a strong correlation between the magnitude of an earthquake and the cumulative absolute velocity of a structure<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn14" name="_ednref14" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[14]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>, as of yet there is no model for estimating the CAV for structures in Oklahoma affected by induced earthquakes.<o:p></o:p></span></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Short of installing more instruments and conducting a new study, a different approach is required to determine cumulative impact of these induced earthquakes. One such alternative uses people as the “instruments” or “sensors” in a seismic network.<o:p></o:p></span></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><h3><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Another way to measure earthquake impact</span></h3></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">A potential solution for communicating cumulative ground motion was proposed during a November 2014 workshop in Midwest City, Oklahoma, organized by the USGS and OGS. In its report on this workshop<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn15" name="_ednref15" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[15]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>, USGS and OGS researchers noted that “A cumulative shake map could be produced for areas that have reported significant levels of induced seismicity, such as Oklahoma. This map would display the maximum intensity observed at any location over a given past time-interval based on Did You Feel It? public responses.”<o:p></o:p></span></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Intensity is a concept different than both magnitude and CAV. Like CAV, it does not measure the strength of the earthquake, but rather measures the effect of the earthquake on a particular area. Unlike CAV, it is a qualitative measure of the ground shaking at a particular site. The USGS measures intensity on the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale, or MMI. This intensity scale was developed, in part, because of a need to correlate instrument data with the destructive effects of an earthquake. “Though the importance of the factor of acceleration is recognized, we have as yet no satisfactory definition of intensity, no formula expressing earthquake violence in ground movement,” Harry Wood and Frank Neumann wrote in their 1931 paper on the index<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn16" name="_ednref16" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[16]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>.<o:p></o:p></span></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">To help differentiate magnitude from intensity, the MMI scale makes use of Roman numerals. “I” on the MMI scale indicates the earthquake was only felt by very few people. Earthquakes become more noticeable at an intensity of “III,” but people may not immediately recognize the movement as an earthquake and might mistake the vibration for a passing truck. At “V”, many people are awakened if they are sleeping, and windows and dishes might break. Ordinary structures may experience slight damage at “VII.” The scale tops out at “XII,” which means utter devastation.<o:p></o:p></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Did You Feel It?, otherwise known as DYFI, is a USGS program to collect intensity data from citizens, by surveying the public on what was experienced during the quake. For each earthquake in the United States, the USGS creates a web page with the magnitude, location, depth of the quake, and other information. If an earthquake is of a certain size, the page might also show monetary damage estimates that are calculated by the Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn17" name="_ednref17" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[17]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>.<o:p></o:p></span><br /><div style="display: block; font-family: &quot;helvetica&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: normal; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; margin: 12px auto 6px auto;"><a href="https://www.scribd.com/doc/300855907/USGS-PAGER-M5-1" style="text-decoration: underline;" title="View USGS PAGER M5.1 on Scribd">USGS PAGER M5.1</a></div><iframe class="scribd_iframe_embed" data-aspect-ratio="undefined" data-auto-height="false" frameborder="0" height="600" id="doc_52717" scrolling="no" src="https://www.scribd.com/embeds/300855907/content?start_page=1&amp;view_mode=scroll&amp;show_recommendations=true" width="100%"></iframe><br /></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><i>A USGS PAGER report for a magnitude 5.1 earthquake in Oklahoma, showing estimated fatalities, economic losses, and population exposure.</i></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">The page also contains a link to a questionnaire where people are asked whether they felt the earthquake, whether it made objects in the house move, what kind of damage buildings experienced, and other questions. This is the DYFI survey.<o:p></o:p></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">The DYFI survey is based on a questionnaire that was developed to study the intensity of a 1994 quake in Northridge, California<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn18" name="_ednref18" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[18]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>. That study also established an equation that the USGS uses to interpret intensity, called “Community Decimal Intensity,” or CDI, from questionnaires. The USGS aggregates all questionnaires by ZIP code, and calculates the average of the reported intensities for a ZIP code.<o:p></o:p></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">The resulting intensity is known as “Community Internet Intensity,” or CII, where the community is the ZIP code. CII is similar to MMI, but USGS warns that “because there are major differences in the data and procedures used to assign the two types of intensities, the Community Internet Intensities cannot be considered to be identical to the USGS Modified Mercalli Intensities.”<o:p></o:p></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-nBa4DhQfaKE/VtHb9BLc25I/AAAAAAAADSA/RemEhI0NB0I/s1600/feb13-2016-m5-1.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="640" src="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-nBa4DhQfaKE/VtHb9BLc25I/AAAAAAAADSA/RemEhI0NB0I/s640/feb13-2016-m5-1.jpg" width="572" /></a></div><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><i>A USGS-produced "Community Internet Intensity Map" created from crowd-sourced surveys on earthquake intensity. Geometries in the map are of ZIP codes. A scale is included to translate color into intensity and reported shaking and/or damage.</i></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">USGS noted that different locations within a ZIP code may experience different levels of intensity due to type of structure, construction, and other factors<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn19" name="_ednref19" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[19]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>. While the USGS makes attempts to weed out unusual observations, the DYFI data product may still contain errors. But despite the potential “messiness” of using internet questionnaires, studies have shown that the DYFI data is not only useful for rapid processing of post-earthquake information, but also can be used in quantitative research. “The key to the usefulness of the data is simply this,” wrote Gail Atkison and David Wald in their 2007 study on DYFI data<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn20" name="_ednref20" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[20]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>, “They make up in quantity what they lack in quality.” In their research, Atkison and Wald found a strong relationship between DYFI data and ground motion data.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">To summarize, citizens send reports of shaking, the USGS finds the average reported intensity for a ZIP code, and the resulting data tracks very well with ground motion data. But how to get to a cumulative shake map from this data?<o:p></o:p></span></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">I propose the following: intensity is a function of earthquake magnitude, such that it is possible to estimate with some certainty the intensity very close to an earthquake, near the earthquake hypocenter. Also, an earthquake of a given magnitude will release a certain amount of energy. Given these two relationships, it is possible to arrive at an energy value by treating each DYFI response as if the response was given at the earthquake hypocenter.<o:p></o:p></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Neither intensity nor magnitude can be summed in any meaningful way, but energy can be cumulative. Thus, a cumulative shake map can be generated by translating intensity from DYFI data into energy in this manner.<o:p></o:p></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><h3><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Methodology</span></h3><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">USGS's earthquake database was queried for three regions in Oklahoma, comprising 91.6% of Oklahoma's total land area. The earthquake database cannot be queried for earthquakes in a given state, only geographic coordinates are permitted. The query generated a list of 5,778 earthquakes from 2000-2015.<o:p></o:p></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">It is important to note that this is a much smaller sample than the 18,021 earthquakes OGS recorded for the same time period. This large difference in the number of earthquakes recorded could be due to USGS pulling its historical data from the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) Comprehensive Catalog (ComCat), based at the Northern California Data Center, which may have not yet integrated OGS's regional seismic catalog. Oklahoma’s seismic network is not listed among the ANSS catalog's contributing networks<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn21" name="_ednref21" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[21]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-VVUbUNve6Is/VtHTCVFR03I/AAAAAAAADRI/yHZOVaJaNlM/s1600/ArcGIS%2BEarth%2BAreas%2BOGS.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="376" src="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-VVUbUNve6Is/VtHTCVFR03I/AAAAAAAADRI/yHZOVaJaNlM/s640/ArcGIS%2BEarth%2BAreas%2BOGS.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><i><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype id="_x0000_t75" coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f" stroked="f"> <v:stroke joinstyle="miter"/> <v:formulas> <v:f eqn="if lineDrawn pixelLineWidth 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 1 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum 0 0 @1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @2 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 0 1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @6 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="sum @8 21600 0"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @10 21600 0"/> </v:formulas> <v:path o:extrusionok="f" gradientshapeok="t" o:connecttype="rect"/> <o:lock v:ext="edit" aspectratio="t"/></v:shapetype><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_1" o:spid="_x0000_i1029" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:468pt;height:275.25pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image001.jpg" o:title=""/></v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--></span><i><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">This map, created in ArcGIS Earth, shows the queried regions of Oklahoma with respect to the earthquakes recorded by OGS from 2000-2015.</span></i><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">A Google Apps Script was utilized to scrape the web pages of each of those earthquakes and search for links to DYFI data. When DYFI data was discovered for a given earthquake, the script appended the DYFI data to a Google Sheet. When all earthquake pages were scraped, the DYFI data was downloaded locally from the Google Sheet.<o:p></o:p></span></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">USGS recorded 188,707 individual shake reports related to Oklahoma earthquakes between 2000 and 2015, from 3,374 unique ZIP codes across 33 states. Hereafter, only the DYFI data from Oklahoma ZIP codes were used, narrowing the dataset to 127,779 individual reports across 561 ZIP codes. Of the Oklahoma earthquakes in the USGS database, 2,433 resulted in any shake reports within the state (42%).</span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-0j8-6McvFi8/VtHTXP7AUgI/AAAAAAAADRM/k6IfoLWw-aU/s1600/CY83FkBUsAA83uO.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="249" src="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-0j8-6McvFi8/VtHTXP7AUgI/AAAAAAAADRM/k6IfoLWw-aU/s640/CY83FkBUsAA83uO.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><i><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><i><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_4" o:spid="_x0000_i1028" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:468pt;height:183pt;visibility:visible; mso-wrap-style:square'> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image003.jpg" o:title=""/></v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--></span></i><i><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">A scatter plot showing CII data from inside Oklahoma, from 2002-2015. Dots representing reports from larger earthquakes are shown as darker points, while dots from smaller earthquakes are lighter. Larger earthquakes were reported for more than 100 miles, while smaller earthquakes may only be reported nearby.</span></i></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">In order to translate the DYFI intensity data into energy, it was necessary to develop an equation that best fit the existing DYFI data. Any DYFI entry where a ZIP code submitted less than five individual shake reports for an earthquake was discarded. DYFI data for earthquakes between M2.5 and M5.6 (the strongest quake recorded in Oklahoma for the period) was binned according to magnitude in 0.1 increments (e.g., M2.5, M2.6, M2.7, and so on). Each bin was processed in R using bagplot (bivariate boxplot) from the Another Plot PACkage</span><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn22" name="_ednref22" style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[22]</span></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;"> to identify outliers. A total of 44 outliers were removed from the data based on bagplots, leaving 2,234 data points.</span></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><br /></span><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-6S3xCDIskdE/VtHT0BE_WNI/AAAAAAAADRU/HoB5Ta0GGxA/s1600/dyfi3-3R.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="376" src="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-6S3xCDIskdE/VtHT0BE_WNI/AAAAAAAADRU/HoB5Ta0GGxA/s640/dyfi3-3R.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_3" o:spid="_x0000_i1027" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:468.75pt;height:276.75pt; visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image005.jpg" o:title=""/></v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--></span><i><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">A graph generated in R, showing the bagplot for the magnitude 3.3 bin. One outlier appeared as a red dot outside of the bagplot's "fence"; a reported 4.7 intensity at 9 miles from the earthquake hypocenter.</span></i><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><o:p></o:p></span></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><i><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Multiple linear regression was used in R to find the relationship between intensity, earthquake magnitude, and distance from earthquake hypocenter for the Oklahoma earthquakes. With this dataset and method, the CDI data could be described in a linear relationship with magnitude and distance with an average error of 0.4591 CDI units (this is only slightly higher than the Atkison and Wald study). Additionally, the best-fit line has an R squared of 0.48, meaning 48% percent of the intensity could be explained by magnitude and distance alone.</span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Given an earthquake of moment magnitude M, at a location D miles from the hypocenter, the CDI intensity I can be described from the following equation:<o:p></o:p></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">I = 0.93M - 1.15logD + 1.14<o:p></o:p></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Using the new equation, the intensity near the hypocenter (1 mile) would approximately be:<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"></div><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">I = 0.93M + 1.14<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">In finding the cumulative energy displacement experienced by a ZIP code, the following relationship between energy and magnitude was used<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn23" name="_ednref23" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[23]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>, where E is energy in Joules:<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">log E = 1.5M&nbsp; + 4.8<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Solving for E yields the equation:<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">E = 10^(1.5M&nbsp; + 4.8)<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Substituting intensity for magnitude yields the relationship between energy and intensity:<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">E = 10^(1.62I + 2.96)<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Using data from 2015 earthquakes exclusively, for each quake in which a ZIP code submitted &nbsp;DYFI surveys, the CDI was entered in the energy-intensity equation to arrive at an energy value for the ZIP code. Those energy values were summed for each earthquake in 2015.</span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><a href="https://mschroyer.cartodb.com/viz/d9fc8934-be34-11e5-a03b-0e8c56e2ffdb/embed_map">This information was plotted in CartoDB</a> along with information about the frequency of shake reports from the ZIP code in 2015, the average intensity reported to USGS in 2015, and the maximum reported intensity in 2015.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><br /><h3><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Results</span></h3></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">The Oklahoma equation is similar to the equation used by the USGS. The USGS has also developed equation to estimate CDI on the Eastern and Western United States, based on DYFI reports.</span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">The Western equation is as follows:<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">I = 1.01M - 0.00054D - 1.72logD + 1.15<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">USGS equation for the Eastern US is as follows:<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">I = 1.29M - 0.00051*D - 2.16logD + 1.60<o:p></o:p></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-YBiKbfXLVKY/VtIDgJdwVQI/AAAAAAAADSQ/3DUyk46VgRY/s1600/OKvsUSGS26.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="468" src="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-YBiKbfXLVKY/VtIDgJdwVQI/AAAAAAAADSQ/3DUyk46VgRY/s640/OKvsUSGS26.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><i>A comparison of intensity over distance for a magnitude 2.6 earthquake, as predicted from USGS West and East equations, and the equations developed here for Oklahoma.</i></span></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_5" o:spid="_x0000_i1026" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:468pt;height:342.75pt; visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image007.jpg" o:title=""/></v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--></span><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">One visible characteristic of the graph of the Oklahoma equation is how its slope becomes very shallow as the CDI drops below 2. This may reflect how unlikely DYFI data is to capture many reports of shaking below an intensity of 2 (see scatter plot). The equation developed from Oklahoma’s DYFI data yields a lower CDI at a given distance than is predicted by both USGS equation.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><br /></span><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-l-OpVXB2bu0/VtHUFmiXbMI/AAAAAAAADRc/S5JtELkePyU/s1600/CartoCumulativeShaking.png" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="266" src="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-l-OpVXB2bu0/VtHUFmiXbMI/AAAAAAAADRc/S5JtELkePyU/s640/CartoCumulativeShaking.png" width="640" /></a></div><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_6" o:spid="_x0000_i1025" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:468pt;height:195pt; visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image009.png" o:title=""/></v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--></span><i><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Data from the analysis was overlaid onto a CartoDB map, including information on frequency of reports, average intensity, and maximum intensity.</span></i><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"></div><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">The following table consists of the 10 Oklahoma ZIP codes that experienced the most shaking energy, based on the equation. Energy here is represented in mega joules (MJ).&nbsp;</span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">The frequency listed is how often, on average, a ZIP code submitted shaking reports due to an earthquake during 2015. Population totals and population in poverty figures were collected from the United States Census.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><br /></span></div><table border="1" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="MsoTableGrid" style="border-collapse: collapse; border: none; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-padding-alt: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;"> <tbody><tr style="height: 15.0pt; mso-yfti-firstrow: yes; mso-yfti-irow: 0;"> <td nowrap="" style="background: #D9D9D9; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; height: 15.0pt; mso-background-themecolor: background1; mso-background-themeshade: 217; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">ZIP code<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="background: #D9D9D9; border-left: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; height: 15.0pt; mso-background-themecolor: background1; mso-background-themeshade: 217; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">energy<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="background: #D9D9D9; border-left: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; height: 15.0pt; mso-background-themecolor: background1; mso-background-themeshade: 217; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">city<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="background: #D9D9D9; border-left: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; height: 15.0pt; mso-background-themecolor: background1; mso-background-themeshade: 217; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">frequency<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="background: #D9D9D9; border-left: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; height: 15.0pt; mso-background-themecolor: background1; mso-background-themeshade: 217; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">avg intensity<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="background: #D9D9D9; border-left: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; height: 15.0pt; mso-background-themecolor: background1; mso-background-themeshade: 217; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">max intensity<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="background: #D9D9D9; border-left: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; height: 15.0pt; mso-background-themecolor: background1; mso-background-themeshade: 217; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 50.25pt;" valign="top" width="67"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">population<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="background: #D9D9D9; border-left: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; height: 15.0pt; mso-background-themecolor: background1; mso-background-themeshade: 217; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">poverty rate<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> </tr><tr style="height: 15.0pt; mso-yfti-irow: 1;"> <td nowrap="" style="border-top: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">73759<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">8137988<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">Medford<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">8D 21H<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">3<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">6.1<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 50.25pt;" valign="top" width="67"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">1,468<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">9.40%<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> </tr><tr style="height: 15.0pt; mso-yfti-irow: 2;"> <td nowrap="" style="border-top: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">73734<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">7492925<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">Dover<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">28D 1H<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">3.2<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">6.1<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 50.25pt;" valign="top" width="67"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">1,067<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">6.60%<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> </tr><tr style="height: 15.0pt; mso-yfti-irow: 3;"> <td nowrap="" style="border-top: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">74062<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">7276503<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">Ripley<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">33D 4H<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">3.5<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">6.1<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 50.25pt;" valign="top" width="67"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">1,123<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">18.60%<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> </tr><tr style="height: 15.0pt; mso-yfti-irow: 4;"> <td nowrap="" style="border-top: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">73028<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">6613354<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">Crescent<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">10D 17H<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">3<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">6<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 50.25pt;" valign="top" width="67"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">3,454<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">9.40%<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> </tr><tr style="height: 15.0pt; mso-yfti-irow: 5;"> <td nowrap="" style="border-top: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">73749<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">3257242<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">Jet<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">33D 4H<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">3.9<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">5.8<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 50.25pt;" valign="top" width="67"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">448<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">7.10%<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> </tr><tr style="height: 15.0pt; mso-yfti-irow: 6;"> <td nowrap="" style="border-top: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">73771<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">2215352<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">Wakita<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">28D 1H<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">4.2<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">5.7<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 50.25pt;" valign="top" width="67"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">495<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">7.30%<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> </tr><tr style="height: 15.0pt; mso-yfti-irow: 7;"> <td nowrap="" style="border-top: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">73730<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">2112373<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">Covington<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">4D 19H<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">2.7<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">5.4<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 50.25pt;" valign="top" width="67"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">734<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">8.90%<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> </tr><tr style="height: 15.0pt; mso-yfti-irow: 8;"> <td nowrap="" style="border-top: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">73761<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">2015173<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">Nash<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">73D 0H<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">4<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">5.7<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 50.25pt;" valign="top" width="67"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">395<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">11.10%<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> </tr><tr style="height: 15.0pt; mso-yfti-irow: 9;"> <td nowrap="" style="border-top: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">73044<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">1747924<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">Guthrie<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">1D 20H<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">2.7<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">5.7<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 50.25pt;" valign="top" width="67"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">20,226<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">18.20%<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> </tr><tr style="height: 15.0pt; mso-yfti-irow: 10; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes;"> <td nowrap="" style="border-top: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">74640<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">1339692<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">Hunter<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">73D 0H<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">4.4<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">5.6<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 50.25pt;" valign="top" width="67"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">312<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> <td nowrap="" style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; height: 15.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; width: 48.0pt;" valign="top" width="64"><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt;">11.40%<o:p></o:p></span></div></td> </tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">The ZIP code that experienced the most cumulative shaking energy (Medford, ZIP code 73759) was not the ZIP code that most often submitted shake reports. The ZIP code that most often submitted shake reports was 74023. That area includes the town of Cushing, which held 12.5 percent of United States’ commercial oil stockpiles in 2015<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn24" name="_ednref24" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[24]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>, which has prompted federal officials to consider the earthquakes a national security risk<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn25" name="_ednref25" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[25]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>.</span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Even though Cushing reported, on average, shaking from an earthquake every 36 hours, its cumulative energy was 13% of that experienced by Medford.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">The next three areas with the highest reporting frequency were Stillwater's 74074 ZIP code (every 38 hours), followed by Edmond's 73013 ZIP code (41 hours), and Oklahoma City's 73126 ZIP code (43 hours).<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><br /><h3><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Questions for future research</span></h3></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">As was mentioned, DYFI data is not perfect. The USGS warns that people may report different intensities depending on the quality of the structure they were in at the time of the earthquake. Furthermore, reports are aggregated by ZIP code, but ZIP codes are not uniform geographic shapes.</span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Distance in this dataset is determined by the distance between the center of the largest town within the ZIP code and the earthquake hypocenter, so all reports in a ZIP code are treated as having originated from this town. Oklahoma is not a geographic area with uniform geology and soil composition, and rock and soil of differing compositions will transmit seismic energy differently<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn26" name="_ednref26" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[26]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>.<o:p></o:p></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Blind spots may exist in this data. Whether a person submits a shake report depends on whether the person has a reliable internet connection, and there still exists a “digital divide” between poorer and wealthier homes. Wireless infrastructure is helping bring internet connections to poorer communities, however, and DYFI reports can be submitted from a smartphone<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn27" name="_ednref27" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[27]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>.&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">Yet, while rural areas have more access to wireless internet than in previous years, those communities consistently have greater poverty than urban areas in the Unites States</span><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn28" name="_ednref28" style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[28]</span></span></span></a><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">.&nbsp;</span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Meanwhile, a larger population in general means more “sensors” for that community, which means it may be more “sensitive” to shaking and more likely to make DYFI reports. Therefore, larger and/or wealthier communities may appear to have more cumulative shaking than poor, rural communities which may in fact be harder-hit by earthquakes.<o:p></o:p></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">The ZIP codes in the top 10 list are rural ZIP codes, but they are not necessarily the poorest ZIP codes in the state. Among the top 10 most-shaken ZIP codes in this analysis, there is a 15.6% poverty rate, which is about 1.3% lower than the state rate, and about 0.2% greater than the national rate<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn29" name="_ednref29" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[29]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>. The most poverty-stricken communities are in the south and eastern parts of the state, which have not experienced the majority of the induced earthquakes<a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_edn30" name="_ednref30" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">[30]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></a>.<o:p></o:p></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">All of the factors mentioned contribute to variability in the dataset and inaccuracy in the equation. Yet they also are excellent questions to pursue in further research. In particular, an exploration of the potential link between poverty and internet access, and the likelihood of being accounted for in the DYFI dataset, could provide important policy-guiding information. Accounting for these additional factors could lead to a better cumulative shaking map, and potentially even a better impact prediction and estimation system for Oklahoma’s earthquakes than PAGER.<o:p></o:p></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Better data, specifically cumulative absolute velocity measurements generated from a network of home-based devices (an internet of things for earthquakes), would yield improved accuracy. But for now, the cumulative shake map can serve as a guide for where to look for impact and damage from induced seismic activity, and where to allocate resources for future research.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div><!--[if !supportEndnotes]--><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><br clear="all" /></span><br /><hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><!--[endif]--> <br /><div id="edn1"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref1" name="_edn1" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[1]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">Oklahoma Geological Survey. (2016). <i>Earthquake catalog</i>. Retrieved Jan. 26, 2016, from http://www.ou.edu/content/ogs/research/earthquakes/catalogs.html.</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn2"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref2" name="_edn2" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[2]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">Damrill, K., Schammert, B. (2015, Dec. 29). Four earthquakes, including 4.3 magnitude, rock Edmond area Tuesday. <i>Okcfox.com</i>. Retrieved from http://okcfox.com/news/local/large-earthquake-rocks-oklahoma-early-tuesday-morning.</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn3"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref3" name="_edn3" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[3]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">Santos, P. (2015, Dec. 29). Chimney torn from Edmond home after earthquake. <i>Koco.com.</i> Retrieved from http://www.koco.com/news/chimney-torn-from-edmond-home-after-earthquake/37181792.</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn4"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref4" name="_edn4" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[4]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">Santos, P. (2015, Dec. 30). Walls of northeast OKC apartment complex collapse after quake. <i>Koco.com</i>. Retrieved from http://www.koco.com/news/Walls-of-northeast-OKC-apartment-complex-collapse-after-quake/37197654.</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn5"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref5" name="_edn5" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[5]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">Andrews, R., Holland, A. (2015). <i>Statement on Oklahoma Seismicity</i>. Norman, OK: Oklahoma Geological Survey. Retrieved from http://wichita.ogs.ou.edu/documents/OGS_Statement-Earthquakes-4-21-15.pdf.</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn6"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref6" name="_edn6" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[6]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">United States Geological Survey. (2015). Induced Earthquakes. Retrieved Jan. 26, 2016, from http://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/induced/.</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn7"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref7" name="_edn7" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[7]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">Earthquakes and Volcanoes Volume 21 Number 1 1989). Schnabel, D. (1989). <i>Earthquakes &amp; Volcanoes, Volume 21, Number 1</i>. Retrieved from https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039068.</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn8"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref8" name="_edn8" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[8]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">LaFrance, A. (2014) Is There a Better Way to Measure Earthquakes? <i>The Atlantic</i>. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2014/08/is-there-a-better-way-to-measure-earthquakes/379165/.</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn9"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref9" name="_edn9" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[9]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">Baer, E. (2007). How big was that quake? Retrieved from http://serc.carleton.edu/quantskills/methods/quantlit/Earthquake_mag.htmlhttp://serc.carleton.edu/quantskills/methods/quantlit/Earthquake_mag.html.</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn10"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref10" name="_edn10" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[10]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">Branstetter, Z. (2015) Attorney sues energy companies seeking class-action status for earthquake victims in nine counties. <i>Tulsa World</i>. Retrieved from http://www.tulsaworld.com/earthquakes/attorney-sues-energy-companies-seeking-class-action-status-for-earthquake/article_22ca5866-633d-5dd7-ab30-7b7b81da73fe.html.</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn11"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref11" name="_edn11" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[11]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">Campbell, K.W., Bozorgnia, Y. (2012) Use of Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV) in Damage Assessment. Proceedings of the 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, September 2012, Paper number 2965.<o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn12"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref12" name="_edn12" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[12]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">Fahjan, Y. M., Alcik, H., Sari, A. (2011). Applications of cumulative absolute velocity to urban earthquake early warning systems. <i>Journal of Seismology</i>, 15(2), 355-373. doi:</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">10.1007/s10950-011-9229-8</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn13"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref13" name="_edn13" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[13]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (1997) Pre-earthquake planning and immediate nuclear power plant operator postearthquake actions. (Regulatory guide 1.166). Washington, DC: Author. 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Site specific estimation of cumulative absolute velocity. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology, Beijing, August 2012.</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn15"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref15" name="_edn15" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[15]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">(Incorporating Induced Seismicity in the 2014 United States National Seismic Hazard Model) Petersen, M.D., Mueller, C. S., Moschetti, M. P., Hoover, S. M., Rubinstein, J. L., Llenos, A. L., Michael, A.&nbsp; J., Ellsworth, W. L., McGarr, A. F., Holland, A. A., &amp; Anderson, J. G. (2015). Incorporating Induced Seismicity in the 2014 United States National Seismic Hazard Model—Results of 2014 Workshop and Sensitivity Studies. Reston, VA: United States Geological Survey. Retrieved from http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1070/</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn16"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref16" name="_edn16" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[16]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">Wood, H., &amp; Neumann, F. (1931) Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale of 1931. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 21, 277-283.</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn17"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref17" name="_edn17" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[17]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">United States Geological Survey. (2011). <i>PAGER – Background</i>. Retrieved from http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/pager/background.php<o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn18"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref18" name="_edn18" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[18]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">Dengler, L. A., &amp; J. W. Dewey (1998). An Intensity Survey of Households Affected by the Northridge, California, Earthquake of 17 January, 1994. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 88, 441-462.</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn19"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref19" name="_edn19" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[19]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">United States Geological Survey. (2014). DYFI Disclaimer. Retrieved from http://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/dyfi/disclaimer.php.</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn20"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref20" name="_edn20" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[20]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">Atkinson, G. M., &amp; D. J. Wald. (2007). "Did You Feel It?" intensity data: A surprisingly good measure of earthquake ground motion. Seismological Research Letters, 78, 362-368.</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn21"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref21" name="_edn21" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[21]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">Northern California Earthquake Data Center. (2015). Earthquake Catalog Details. Retrieved from http://www.quake.geo.berkeley.edu/anss/anss-detail.html#contributors</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn22"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref22" name="_edn22" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[22]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">Wolf, H.P. (2014). aplpack: Another Plot PACKage. Retrieved from https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/aplpack/index.html</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn23"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref23" name="_edn23" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[23]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">Bormann, P., &amp; D. Di Giacomo. The moment magnitude Mw and the energy magnitude Me: common roots and differences. Journal of Seismology, v.15, 2011, 411. doi:10.1007/s10950-010-9219-2</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn24"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref24" name="_edn24" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[24]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">Wilmoth, A. (2015, Aug. 2). GUSHING INTO CUSHING: Oil fills major storage hub in small Oklahoma town. <i>The Oklahoman</i>. Retrieved from http://newsok.com/article/5437653</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn25"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref25" name="_edn25" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[25]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">Wertz, J. (2015, Nov. 30). Confidence In Oil Hub Security Shaken By Oklahoma Earthquakes. <i>State Impact Oklahoma</i>. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/2015/11/30/456777184/confidence-in-oil-hub-security-shaken-by-oklahoma-earthquakes</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn26"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref26" name="_edn26" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[26]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">Siddiqi, J. (2000). <i>Horizontal-to-vertical component ratios for earthquake ground motions recorded on hard rock sites in Canada</i> (Master’s thesis). Ottawa, Canada: Carleton University.<o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn27"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref27" name="_edn27" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[27]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">Horrigan, J. &amp; Duggan, M. (2015, Dec. 21) Home Broadband 2015. Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/12/21/home-broadband-2015/</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn28"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref28" name="_edn28" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[28]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">Shinn, P. (2009, Aug. 17). Surprising causes of rural poverty. <i>OKPolicy.org</i>. Retrieved from http://okpolicy.org/surprising-causes-of-rural-poverty</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn29"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref29" name="_edn29" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[29]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">United States Census Bureau. (2015). State &amp; County QuickFacts. Retrieved from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/40000.html</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><div id="edn30"><div class="MsoEndnoteText"><span style="font-family: &quot;helvetica neue&quot; , &quot;arial&quot; , &quot;helvetica&quot; , sans-serif;"><a href="file:///K:/data/Scraping%20crowd-sourced%20shake%20reports%20to%20produce%20a%20cumulative%20shake%20map%20for%20Oklahoma%20earthquakes.docx#_ednref30" name="_edn30" title=""><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"><!--[if !supportFootnotes]--><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 107%;">[30]</span></span><!--[endif]--></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">Wertz, J. (2011). Mapped: An Overview of Poverty in Oklahoma. State Impact Oklahoma. Retrieved from https://stateimpact.npr.org/oklahoma/maps/mapped-an-overview-of-poverty-in-oklahoma/</span></span><o:p></o:p></div></div></div>Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-11470231867025241812015-11-05T12:00:00.000-06:002015-11-05T13:32:01.844-06:00Climbing a virtual mountain, Cesium, and other big life moments<div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-rGenzBKGnKo/Vjtt-DIzDzI/AAAAAAAADNY/UO5yLJpsrno/s1600/elkmtnscreen2.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="400" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-rGenzBKGnKo/Vjtt-DIzDzI/AAAAAAAADNY/UO5yLJpsrno/s640/elkmtnscreen2.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br />Much has happened since my last update, but I'll keep it simple. Last August, my lovely wife finished her awesome dissertation on the roots and development of toxic discourse in science fiction. With her PhD and job offer in hand, we left the University of Illinois for Oklahoma City (Urbana we will always love you).<br /><div><br /></div><div>Initially, I kept working remotely for the National Science Foundation grant, EnLiST, continuing the analysis of our teaching and learning network data and helping UIUC faculty plan for future grants. Eventually I did hit the job market, and became the instructional technologist for the Center for Learning and Teaching at Oklahoma City Community College.</div><div><br /></div><div>What does that mean? Basically, it means making sure the college stays up-to-date with technological change. Some days this means helping faculty with changes in our learning management system (LMS). Other days, it means building 3D models, visualizations, and applications for learning (<a href="http://schroyeroccc.github.io/elkmtn/">such as this digital mountain</a>).</div><div><a name='more'></a></div><div><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://cesiumjs.org/demos/images/agsattrack/agsattrack_1.png" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" src="http://cesiumjs.org/demos/images/agsattrack/agsattrack_1.png" height="438" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">A Cesium application used to track various satellites in orbit.</td></tr></tbody></table><div><br /></div><div>Lately, this has meant working with <a href="http://cesiumjs.org/" target="_blank">CesiumJS</a>. It's one of the largest, if not the largest, open-source JavaScript libraries in development. It's a WebGL virtual globe and map engine, and it's quite versatile and fairly easy to get up-and-running. Think of it like Google Earth, but for your internet browser (Google Earth had a plug-in once, but it was deprecated because it relied on <a href="https://developer.chrome.com/extensions/npapi">NPAPI</a>).</div><div><br /></div><div>I first approached Cesium when I was looking to build an app to help new students navigate the college. But I soon realized the library had a multitude of uses beyond navigation. Cesium could be used to model and map historical events, visualize macroeconomic and sociopolitical concepts. It also could help community college students, who often times come from disadvantaged backgrounds, digitally tour places where they could never travel in person.</div><div><br /></div><div>As a drone and sUAS user, Cesium can provide a rich digital canvas to display drone-gathered images and data. The people behind Cesium also do a good job of curating case studies and examples in their <a href="http://cesiumjs.org/blog.html" target="_blank">blog</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://cesiumjs.org/demos.html" target="_blank">demos</a>, and&nbsp;<a href="http://cesiumjs.org/tutorials.html" target="_blank">tutorials</a>&nbsp;pages.&nbsp;Because everything is client-side, it has essentially zero server requirements. It's trivial to host and share your Cesium project on <a href="https://github.com/SchroyerOCCC/SchroyerOCCC.github.io/tree/master/elkmtn">GitHub</a>, for example.</div><div><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"></div><div>Now, virtual globes are great and all, but at some point you need people in the field to collect the data. My wife and I took advantage of the unusually mild late-summer here in Oklahoma and decided to explore some of the state's natural wonders. We set out for the <a href="http://www.fws.gov/refuge/Wichita_Mountains/" target="_blank">Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge</a>, the oldest managed wildlife facility in the United States, and home to 650 bison and 800 elk.</div><div><br /></div><div>You can't legally fly a drone or any other remote-controlled aircraft over a U.S. wildlife refuge, but that was fine. Drones have been known to disturb wildlife, and drones couldn't really capture the data I was looking for. Also, I don't know if you could tell from this site, but I have this habit of turning vacations into work projects. So, I kept things simple by taking photos on the ground and tracking my progress with a GPS tracking app on my old smartphone.</div><div><br /></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Ws2WVg22TCE/VjqFRe93-WI/AAAAAAAADMo/pkN_fXb-VLE/s1600/12039352_718184091796_330264445375448007_n.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="360" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Ws2WVg22TCE/VjqFRe93-WI/AAAAAAAADMo/pkN_fXb-VLE/s640/12039352_718184091796_330264445375448007_n.jpg" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Even just 1/3 the way up the mountain, the view was excellent.</td></tr></tbody></table><div><br /></div><div>Our target was Elk Mountain. With a prominence of just 170 meters (560 feet), this granite dome is not strictly a mountain according to some international definitions. The USGS, however, hasn't recognized strict definitions for mountains since the 1970s. This also was just fine. Having done no vigorous training whatsoever, my climbing legs were only prepared to step over obstinate house cats, Legos, and terrain of similar ruggedness.</div><div><br /></div><div>Nevertheless, it was an enjoyable climb. It took a little over an hour to climb the 1.79 kilometer (1.1 mile) trail up the mountain. Elk Mountain was more difficult than your average hiking trail, but due to an abundance of stepping stones, it was fairly pedestrian as far as mountains go.</div><div><br /></div><div>More importantly, the trail was chock-a-block full of wildlife, and the top of the mountain provided an unparalleled view of a wonderfully-preserved mixed grass prairie. I took a number of overlapping photographs at the summit, with the idea of later creating a 360-degree panorama.</div><div><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-8lMq3oGNh9k/VjqGO7kTPPI/AAAAAAAADM4/23Yox3ln97c/s1600/12003039_718183343296_559324422236670562_n.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="628" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-8lMq3oGNh9k/VjqGO7kTPPI/AAAAAAAADM4/23Yox3ln97c/s640/12003039_718183343296_559324422236670562_n.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><div><br /></div><div>We couldn't have asked for a better introduction to our new home.</div><div><br /></div><div>With the GPS logs of the descent and photographs in hand, I got to work creating the digital tour with the Cesium library. Only a few tweaks were necessary from the "stock" Cesium viewer. The timeline widget was disabled, as time was static in this presentation.</div><div><br /></div><div>Cesium uses a file format called <a href="https://github.com/AnalyticalGraphicsInc/cesium/wiki/CZML-Guide">CZML</a> to describe any number of objects you'd want on a digital globe, like geometries, pins, and billboards, along with information on how those objects move or change over time. It's like what the KML file is to Google Earth. But unlike KMLs, CZML files are essentially just JSON files with a unique schema, so they can be read and used by a wide range of applications. To make things even easier, there is a handy <a href="https://github.com/cleder/czml">Python library</a> you can use to create a CZML file from whatever data sets you may have.</div><div><br /></div><div>I could have used a CZML file to describe the descent down Elk Mountain, but since this wasn't a massive set of data points, it was easier just copy the coordinates right out of the KML file that my GPS tracking app created. I then created a groundPrimitive object, and gave it the array of coordinates. Ground primitives are fairly new and special in Cesium; they're the only kind of geometry that can be draped over 3D terrain (like, for example, a trail down a mountain!). While many Cesium apps will work on mobile devices, this particular effect does require some client-side GPU power, so unfortunately this virtual mountain is unlikely to work on smartphones or tablets.</div><div><br /></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://cesiumjs.org/images/2015/09-01/groundPrimitives.gif" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="480" src="https://cesiumjs.org/images/2015/09-01/groundPrimitives.gif" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">From the Cesium blog: ground primitive geometries draped over Mount St. Helens.</td></tr></tbody></table><div><br /></div><div>Most style changes with Cesium can be made in CSS. For example, clicking on a pin, geometry, or other object in the Cesium viewer will generate an info box. The default settings made the info boxes too small for my images and panoramas, but this was fixed with a few changes to the&nbsp;cesium-infoBox class in widgets.css. This is a great way of doing things, because you don't necessarily have to make a custom Cesium script for every new application. Sometimes you just need to copy a single CSS file and change a few properties.</div><div><br /></div><div>Speaking of the panorama -- that was created with <a href="http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/redmond/projects/ice/">Microsoft Image Composite Editor</a> and <a href="https://pannellum.org/">Pannelum.js</a>. ICE stitched the photographs into an <a href="https://github.com/SchroyerOCCC/SchroyerOCCC.github.io/blob/master/elkmtn/elkmtn.jpg">equirectangular panorama</a>, and pannelum.js created the viewer for that panoramic image. Click the map pin at the top of the mountain to generate the info box that contains the panorama.<br /><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-LWUP84d7cvI/VjtueQlC8WI/AAAAAAAADNg/zkyMllCsuq4/s1600/elkmtnscreen3.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="400" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-LWUP84d7cvI/VjtueQlC8WI/AAAAAAAADNg/zkyMllCsuq4/s640/elkmtnscreen3.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br /></div><div><br /></div><div><a href="http://schroyeroccc.github.io/elkmtn/">The final product</a> is simple in terms of interactivity, but still quite illustrative. The user can visualize the path up the mountain, its relationship surrounding mixed grass prairie, and sample the flora and fauna (including the state reptile). The experience could be further enhanced with the aid of a simple VR headset such as Google Cardboard. The educational utility of Cardboard is not lost on Google, who recently launched a<a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/29/technology/google-virtual-reality-system-aims-to-enliven-education.html">&nbsp;virtual field trip program</a>.</div><div><br /></div><div>Even without the aid of a VR headset, the future for Cesium looks bright. Outside of the classroom, Cesium could become a powerful tool to aid in processing and disseminating the vast trove of geospatial data and digital models created from drone missions. It could play a key role in the effort to create <a href="http://www.cjr.org/innovations/virtual_reality_journalism.php">immersive news content</a>. The fact that it has no server requirements, ample documentation, an expanding user base, and an increasing list of features probably means it will have considerable reach beyond GIS professionals.</div><div><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-Cg1Hm0N32Fc/VjqGvvVkc9I/AAAAAAAADNA/0-slixeebj8/s1600/12002837_718182974036_7335136886681145425_n.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-Cg1Hm0N32Fc/VjqGvvVkc9I/AAAAAAAADNA/0-slixeebj8/s1600/12002837_718182974036_7335136886681145425_n.jpg" /></a></div><div><br /></div>Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comLawton, OK, USA34.743869417874286 -98.69636535644531234.691678417874286 -98.777046356445311 34.796060417874287 -98.615684356445314tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-92095884191623257622014-12-16T12:55:00.003-06:002014-12-16T12:56:24.331-06:00Here's a holiday gift guide to help you get started in drones<div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-ALm0NBV0e2E/VJB8O63CGBI/AAAAAAAACkY/mtNTSTsPwU4/s1600/makezine%2Bgift%2Bguide.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-ALm0NBV0e2E/VJB8O63CGBI/AAAAAAAACkY/mtNTSTsPwU4/s1600/makezine%2Bgift%2Bguide.jpg" height="248" width="640" /></a></div><br />While drones have some great potential both as a tool and an educational hobby, it can be rather intimidating to get started.<br /><br />There's just so many platforms and widgets to choose from, and it seems every day someone is launching a new type of drone. As I pointed out in a recent post on the sensor journalism Google group, <a href="https://groups.google.com/d/msg/sensor-journalism/N2fIzCKdntc/gpdTkh2ydLAJ" target="_blank">I actually think the market might be bottoming out for creating drone hardware</a>, so hopefully the selection process will be easier in the future.<br /><br />Complicating the matter is that drones can crash or fly off if they lose a GPS lock, risks that are substantially higher when you're just starting off. Having a $1,000 drone fly off with a $300 camera is not a fun or rewarding introduction to drones and remotely piloted aircraft systems.<br /><br />So, <a href="http://giftguide.makezine.com/drones.html" target="_blank">I've made a holiday gift guide for Make Magazine</a> to show people options for the beginner, intermediate, and advanced drone operator.<br /><br />If you've never flown a remote controlled aircraft before, I highly recommend something like the <a href="http://giftguide.makezine.com/detail/drones/detail-walkera-qr.html" target="_blank">Walkera Ladybird</a>. Myself, I've had a fair bit of luck with <a href="http://giftguide.makezine.com/detail/drones/detail-Quanum-Nova.html" target="_blank">Quanum Nova</a>, which has an attractive feature set and price for intermediate operators who don't need to loft heavy cameras or go beyond visual line of sight.<br /><br />Whatever drone you end up choosing for yourself or a special someone, remember to drone responsibly. That means, among other things, picking up an <a href="http://www.modelaircraft.org/" target="_blank">AMA membership</a> and the complimentary insurance that comes with it.Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-10226894319089527862014-02-27T20:49:00.000-06:002014-02-27T21:48:54.198-06:00A call for journalists and makers to join hands around IOT and evidence-based journalism<div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Rse36X5GPag/Uw_yhQeAj6I/AAAAAAAACG4/WU3b104lOII/s1600/Altman+1.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Rse36X5GPag/Uw_yhQeAj6I/AAAAAAAACG4/WU3b104lOII/s1600/Altman+1.jpg" height="424" width="640" /></a></div><br />Writing for Al Jazeera English, D. Parvaz reported on a recent conference for atomic experts organized by the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA), where it was remarkably difficult to get answers from atomic experts.<br /><br />The conference, titled <a href="http://www-pub.iaea.org/iaeameetings/46522/International-Experts-Meeting-on-Radiation-Protection-after-the-Fukushima-Daiichi-Accident" target="_blank">“International Experts’ Meeting on Radiation Protection after the Fukushima Daiichi Accident – Promoting confidence and understanding,</a>” was generally closed to the media. Journalists received presentations on USB drives, but were not given any opportunities for Q&amp;A. The media handlers were pleasant, but not very helpful, <a href="http://blogs.aljazeera.com/blog/europe/looking-transparency-nuclear-world" target="_blank">Parvaz noted</a>.<br /><br /><blockquote class="tr_bq"><i>Great! I requested an interview with the IAEA Scientific Secretariat, Tony Colgan (no can do). Or a statement on why the conference was closed to the media (not so much). How about an IAEA expert on the effects of radiation on sea life? (Nope).</i></blockquote><br />For a conference designed to “promote confidence and understanding” with the public, there was very little engagement with the public. Despite this, Parvaz did find one group of presenters who were very helpful and answered her questions.<br /><br /><a name='more'></a><br /><br />That group was <a href="http://blog.safecast.org/" target="_blank">Safecast</a>, an international not-for-profit that crowd-sources radiation detection with open-source sensors. Safecast held one of their regular hackerspaces to help citizens use and deploy Geiger counters before the conference, but also were invited to speak to IAEA experts.<br /><br />Their reception at the conference turned out better than expected, Parvaz wrote.<br /><i><br /></i><br /><blockquote><i>"I was expecting that we'd be blown off," said [Safecast team member Azby] Brown, but he and [Joe] Moross describe the moment when a room of roughly 200 started tilting to their side, when experts who had little respect for crowdsourcing suddenly realising that in the event of a disaster, trained, data-gathering volunteers were to be appreciated, not dismissed.</i></blockquote><br />Time and time again, we hear about large-scale, man-made disasters that pollute the environment and threaten the health and livelihoods of citizens. In 2010, it was Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico. In 2011, it was the oil barge Rena off the coast of New Zealand. In 2012, it was TEPCO’s Fukushima disaster in Japan, and BP’s oil spill in Alabama. In 2013, it was the ExxonMobil pipeline spill in Arkansas. And so far this year in the United States, we’ve faced the Duke Energy coal ash spill in North Carolina, and the Freedom Industries chemical spill in West Virginia.<br /><br />Of course, these are just the major incidents we learn about through national news. Central Illinois had its own man-made environmental disaster last year, when a stockpile of 200,000 used tires went up in flames in the small town of Hoopeston. At least 2,000 people in 500 homes were evacuated (see <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2013/07/a-massive-toxic-tire-fire-and-how.html" target="_blank">“A massive, toxic tire fire, and how citizen sensor journalism could have informed a community in crisis”</a>).<br /><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-k5bQ1r071cw/UeMM24Nq7BI/AAAAAAAABRc/S8_hlNofSfM/s1600/Hoopeston+tire+fire+JonathonLinares.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-k5bQ1r071cw/UeMM24Nq7BI/AAAAAAAABRc/S8_hlNofSfM/s1600/Hoopeston+tire+fire+JonathonLinares.jpg" height="524" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">A citizen's photo of the tire fire in Hoopeston, Illinois.</td></tr></tbody></table><br />Affected citizens almost never have timely access to environmental data collected by authorities. As was the case with Hoopeston, it took 117 days, several FOIA requests, and a letter to the Illinois Attorney General’s Public Access Counselor to obtain environmental data (see: <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2013/08/iepa-is-silent-on-request-for-data.html" target="_blank">“IEPA is silent on request for data, emails surrounding large tire fire”</a>).<br /><br />Even if environmental data is available, citizens may not have the chance to independently verify what little data may be in circulation. For example, Japan’s government famously downplayed the severity of the Fukushima nuclear disaster. And the public <a href="http://www.cnn.com/2014/02/19/health/west-virginia-water/" target="_blank">still has doubts</a> about the safety of drinking water in West Virginia, following last month’s chemical spill.<br /><br />A government might not even collect data at all, especially if it depends on that data from industries who self-report their environmental impact. An AP report on the West Virginia chemical spill noted that <a href="http://bigstory.ap.org/article/wva-spill-exposes-new-risk-water-coal" target="_blank">13% of coal plants are noncompliant with the Clean Water Act</a>, and that “three-quarters of the 1,727 coal mines listed haven't been inspected in the past five years to see if they are obeying water pollution laws.”<br /><br />With the right sensors, journalists and citizens not only could obtain data where governments fail to do so, but also could provide a means to independently verify government claims. Whether the sensor is on the ground, in the water, or on a drone, makes no difference (see: <a href="http://www.slate.com/blogs/future_tense/2013/11/20/matthew_schroyer_discusses_drone_journalism_in_this_episode_of_the_drone.html" target="_blank">“Journalists Could've Used Drones in Fukushima”</a>).<br /><br /><h2>Evidence-based journalism </h2><br />This process could be called many things. You could call it environmental journalism, data journalism, sensor journalism, computer-assisted reporting, precision reporting, and/or drone journalism. Personally, I prefer “evidence based journalism,” a term coined by boss, a co-principal investigator of the National Science Foundation grant where I work.<br /><br />Evidence-based journalism doesn’t rely on hearsay or calls to authority. Evidence-based journalism relies on quantifiable, verifiable, demonstrative data. In the age of ubiquitous data, and cheap, always-on, internet-connected sensors (i.e. Internet of Things, or IOT), journalists need to raise the bar for information-gathering, and start thinking and behaving like scientists (see <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2011/09/youre-not-newspaper-youre-intelligence.html" target="_blank">“You’re not a newspaper, you’re an intelligence agency for the people”</a>).<br /><br />Journalists can’t do large-scale, evidence-based journalism all on their own. Deploying sensors en masse requires community outreach and cooperation, and so hackerspaces and makerspaces are instrumental in creating accessible sensor and IOT technology, educating the public on the use of sensors, and integrating STEM knowledge to further empower citizens to develop their own environmental sensing devices (see <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2013/05/making-mental-munition-from-bits-to.html" target="_blank">“Making mental munition: from bits to atoms to understanding”</a>). In this respect, this enterprise could just as easily be called community informatics, crowd-sourcing, or hacktivism.<br /><br />For example, my airborne particulate sensing initiative, the Arduino-based DustDuino, couldn’t be possible without help from the Champaign-Urbana Community Fab Lab, and the <a href="https://makerspaceurbana.org/" target="_blank">Makerspace Urbana</a>. Both provided tools and expertise to turn my idea into a prototype, as well as helpful collaborators who shared their application and contributed advice.<br /><br /><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-sAbZMoIU0p0/Uw_3ktl7_zI/AAAAAAAACHI/rlM-YE2dnXE/s1600/Makerspace+Urbana.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-sAbZMoIU0p0/Uw_3ktl7_zI/AAAAAAAACHI/rlM-YE2dnXE/s1600/Makerspace+Urbana.jpg" height="362" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Makerspace Urbana on a typical Wednesday night. This makerspace frequently gives public workshops on topics like robotics, Arduino, programming, 3D Printing, and textiles.</td></tr></tbody></table><br />I’ll be talking more about the DustDuino initiative <a href="http://solidcon.com/solid2014/public/schedule/detail/33351" target="_blank">at the O’Reilly Solid Conference</a> (or Solidcon) on May 21. At the bottom of this post, you’ll find a short video outlining the project.<br /><br />And before Solidcon, in March, I’ll be training journalists at an <a href="https://innovation.internews.org/pilots/environmental-sensor-journalism-start" target="_blank">Internews Earth Journalism News conference</a> in Berkely, California on how to set up, service, and analyze data from DustDuino particulate sensors. Internews journalists will then deploy sensors in Brazil, Mongolia, and elsewhere, and integrate the data into environmental journalism investigations. I’ll also be making an appearance at the <a href="http://www.eventbrite.com/e/groundtruth-and-airwaves-sensor-networks-and-emerging-technology-for-environmental-journalism-tickets-10702817415" target="_blank">“Groundtruth and Airwaves: Sensor Networks and Emerging Technology for Environmental Journalism”</a> symposium at UC Berkely.<br /><br />Finally, the lessons I’m learning through the DustDuino development process are being incorporated into a chapter of an upcoming text on sensor journalism from Tow Center for Digital Journalism at Columbia University.<br /><br />But enough about the DustDuino; it’s the community that helped make the DustDuino that’s important. Back at the very top of this post, there’s an image that was taken at a recent workshop hosted by the <a href="https://makerspaceurbana.org/" target="_blank">Makerspace Urbana</a>, in which I’m soldering a circuit board (right) along with another participant (left). It’s at these type of gatherings where relationships form that could generate the next Apple, HP, Nest. Or the next great innovation in evidence-based journalism.<br /><br />In the photo, we’re both soldering circuit boards from a company called <a href="http://www.tvbgone.com/cfe_main.php" target="_blank">Cornfield Electronics</a>. That company was started by Mitch Altman, a 1984 (master's) graduate of electrical engineering at the University of Illinois, who went on to co-found the influential San Francisco hackerspace <a href="https://noisebridge.net/" target="_blank">Noisebridge</a>. Altman developed a gadget called the TV-B-Gone, which turns off pretty much any brand of television with the touch of a button.<br /><br />With the TV-B-Gone, Altman found a hit. He sold more than 500,000 units, which enabled him to travel across the country to host workshops and deliver an <a href="http://m.dailyillini.com/news/article_b379527c-9381-11e3-ba28-001a4bcf6878.html?mode=jqm" target="_blank">important message</a>: “It is worth choosing well what you do with your time because it’s really one of the few things we have control over in our life.” Earlier this month, he returned to his alma mater to host several such workshops.<br /><br />Altman’s workshop proved to be as important for learning a new skill (soldering), as it did for imparting a life lesson (do what you love). Perhaps there’s a lesson there for journalists as well, in partnering with communities who also love to do interesting things and empower others around them. <br /><br /><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="360" src="//www.youtube.com/embed/JCHbEipWlBQ" width="640"></iframe>Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-62457600778668751462014-02-24T14:48:00.000-06:002014-02-27T18:03:59.752-06:00Satellite images show devastating effects of a big tornado on a small Illinois town<div id="beforeafter1"><div><img alt="before" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-ya03NPuI3Qg/UwuzLqKWozI/AAAAAAAACGQ/IAK8rHX1xIk/s1600/Washington+5-15-12+sm.jpg" height="445" width="600" /></div><div><img alt="after" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-WqW0XzsCnrw/UwuzLvpV6tI/AAAAAAAACGU/FBTAheK_bcY/s1600/Washington+11-18-13+sm.jpg" height="445" width="600" /></div></div><br />The Nov. 17, 2013 tornado outbreak ended the lives of three people in the town of Washington, Ill., and <a href="http://abclocal.go.com/wls/story?section=news/local/illinois&amp;id=9329608">upended the lives</a> of many in the town of 15,000.<br /><br />Many news stations released <a href="http://galleries.apps.chicagotribune.com/chi-131118-aerial-view-of-tornado-damage-pictures/" target="_blank">aerial photos</a> of the devastation, but only recently were satellite photos released which gave a new appreciation of the scope of the disaster. As many as 500 homes were damage or destroyed during the tornado outbreak.<br /><br /><a name='more'></a><br /><br />Above is a side-by-side comparison of two satellite photos. One satellite photo captures the town as it was on May 15, 2012. The other immortalizes Washington as it was on November 18, just one day after being sacked by an EF4 tornado packing winds between 170 and 190 miles per hour. The before/after slider script uses the jQuery library.<br /><br />As telling as these satellite images are, they aren't necessarily the highest-resolution that one could obtain with existing technology. These photos are about 30 centimeters per pixel in resolution, meaning the smallest feature you can make out in the image is an object about one foot by one foot square.<br /><br />Drones, on the other hand, fly much closer to the ground and can achieve much higher resolution, even with consumer point-and-shoot cameras. At an altitude of 400 feet, a drone can provide anywhere between 5 and 3 centimeter resolution, depending on the camera and lens. Lower altitude provides even higher resolution.<br /><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://static.squarespace.com/static/50f8b758e4b0dc4dd5c8165d/t/528bf410e4b08c76fd38dc8a/1384903698056/Gifford%20drone%201.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" src="http://static.squarespace.com/static/50f8b758e4b0dc4dd5c8165d/t/528bf410e4b08c76fd38dc8a/1384903698056/Gifford%20drone%201.jpg" height="456" width="640" /></a></div><br /><br />My mapping drone wasn't set up in time to respond to the November outbreak, but I was able to deploy a small quadrotor drone in another small Illinois town that was struck with a tornado. <a href="http://www.dronejournalism.org/news/2013/11/drone-over-storm-ravaged-illinois-village-documents-aftermath-of-historic-tornado-outbreak" target="_blank">I wrote about that experience on DroneJournalism.org.</a><br /><br />As nice as it was even to have an inexpensive camera drone at my disposal (I showed the footage to my students in the Drones for Schools program at the National Science Foundation grant where I work), a mapping drone would have told me so much more about what happened to the buildings and people of Gifford.<br /><br />Why's that? It's all about data. <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2011/11/being-more-versatile-journalist-data.html" target="_blank">As I wrote back in in 2011</a>, mapping storm damage can be valuable for a journalism investigation. In 1992, Steve Doig, a computer-assisted reporting specialist and journalism professor who formerly worked for the Miami Herald, once used housing and hurricane damage data to show that new houses in Miami-Dade county were not being built to a sufficiently high standard.<br /><br />Doig relied on Red Cross data for his report, but with today's technology, it's not hard to imagine such a report being replicated from drone-gathered GIS data. Doing so also would allow citizens and journalists to independently verify government data (see also <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2012/11/we-need-more-drones-because-were-having.html" target="_blank">"We need more drones because we’re having more big disasters"</a>).<br /><br />Below is video from my quadrotor drone, above Gifford, Ill.<br /><br /><br /><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="360" src="//www.youtube.com/embed/YMb59FWIjFY" width="640"></iframe>Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-642359937793429462014-02-04T09:54:00.001-06:002014-02-04T16:41:22.293-06:00A bug's eye view, brought to you by a nano quadrotor drone.<div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-VBJ_n2u71a8/UurubtnphPI/AAAAAAAACD8/41x8iPpNJ9Q/s1600/family+photo.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-VBJ_n2u71a8/UurubtnphPI/AAAAAAAACD8/41x8iPpNJ9Q/s1600/family+photo.jpg" height="359" width="640" /></a></div><br />What's better than a tiny drone that buzzes like a bee through offices and hallways? How about a tiny drone shielded with a 3D-printed frame, controlled by a Raspberry Pi base station, and equipped with a miniscule video camera and transmitter?<br /><br /><a name='more'></a><br /><br /><a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2013/10/building-and-flying-incredibly-tiny.html" target="_blank">As previously mentioned</a>, I'm working on bringing next-generation science lessons to the classroom as part of a National Science Foundation grant called <a href="http://enlist.illinois.edu/" target="_blank">EnLiST</a>, or Entrepreneurial Leadership in STEM Teaching and learning. Lately, this has meant working with the <a href="http://www.bitcraze.se/crazyflie/" target="_blank">CrazyFlie</a>, an open-source, 19-gram nano quadrotor drone developed by the Swedish team at <a href="http://www.bitcraze.se/" target="_blank">Bitcraze</a>.<br /><br />Why bring tiny quadrotors into the classroom? Simply, drones fly on math, chemistry, physics, and computer science and programming. Having so many STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) lessons wrapped up into a tiny package makes it super easy to cover a lot of important concepts, while holding students' attention and sparking their imaginations.<br /><br />Additionally, when students design and fabricate these systems themselves with rapid prototyping equipment, they are taking on the role of engineers. And having students take on the role of engineers through project-based learning experiences is increasingly becoming a requirement for the "E" in STEM education, as prescribed in the <a href="http://www.nextgenscience.org/next-generation-science-standards" target="_blank">Next Generation Science Standards.</a><br /><br />The CrazyFlie is fairly capable out of the box, but because the drone is open-source, a whole <a href="http://crazyflie.com/" target="_blank">hacker community</a> has sprung up around enhancing this flying circuit board. This community served as the inspiration to "throw the kitchen sink" at this tiny drone, and to load it up with a wireless camera, 3D printed components, and a tiny Linux ground control station.<br /><br />It's all an effort to explore the possibilities of tiny drones, and make them better positioned to serve students in the classroom.<br /><br /><h2>Wire it up </h2><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-g3ULVGBQjfU/Uu1o3bV5s9I/AAAAAAAACEQ/32IdmvNKGKs/s1600/20130909_105645.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-g3ULVGBQjfU/Uu1o3bV5s9I/AAAAAAAACEQ/32IdmvNKGKs/s1600/20130909_105645.jpg" height="480" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><i>NTSC camera (top), transmitter (left), and receiver (right)</i></td></tr></tbody></table>If you're willing to sacrifice resolution, you can get some crazy small cameras and transmitters nowadays. The camera used for this application weighed in at only 1 gram, but only could provide NTSC resolution. That's about 0.3 megapixels. Our application at the grant didn't require a high resolution camera, so this worked just fine.<br /><br />Before throwing everything on the tiny drone, it was necessary to first wire up the electronics to check for functionality and bugs. The camera, transmitter, and receiver were prototyped on breadboards. Thankfully, everything came out just fine.<br /><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-4Bt2HIGcsWk/Uu1rjOFeEmI/AAAAAAAACEY/-i4_j8J_WWI/s1600/1380322119468.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-4Bt2HIGcsWk/Uu1rjOFeEmI/AAAAAAAACEY/-i4_j8J_WWI/s1600/1380322119468.jpg" height="480" width="640" /></a></div><br />In prototype form, the camera, transmitter, and receiver all were powered through a standard 5 volt RC battery elimination circuit (BEC), which took power from 7.4 volt lithium polymer batteries. This is the same equipment that powers radio receivers and servos in model RC aircraft, as well as the drones we build in the Drones for Schools initiative at EnLiST.<br /><br />Although the CrazyFlie is powered by a 3.7 volt battery, it's possible to tap into the on-board regulator to power the camera and transmitter with 5 volts. But once the motors start spinning, available power to the camera components may not be so clean or reliable.<br /><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-oI9EygUHPxc/Uu1z9akhYKI/AAAAAAAACEo/dHGAKVMFWIw/s1600/_DSC3036.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-oI9EygUHPxc/Uu1z9akhYKI/AAAAAAAACEo/dHGAKVMFWIw/s1600/_DSC3036.JPG" height="358" width="640" /></a></div><br />To make sure the camera and transmitter had adequate power, a <a href="http://www.pololu.com/product/2115/specs" target="_blank">Pololu 5 volt step-up voltage regulator</a> was integrated into the system. This tiny board weighs just 0.4 grams and ensures everything remains powered, even if power were to drop to 2.5 volts.<br /><br />And finally, a surface-mount, two-position switch provided a way to turn the camera and transmitter off. Recharge times were greatly improved when the transmitter and camera weren't leaching off the drone's power supply. And when transmitting video wasn't required, turning off the transmitter boosted flight time.<br /><h2>Frame it up</h2><br />The second order of business was to make sure everything was secured on the tiny aircraft, and to protect the drone from bumps and falls. It also was important to guard the props from nicking people or objects. Weight had to be kept to a minimum, as the camera, transmitter, and voltage regulator already claimed about 3 grams of the CrazyFlie's 5 to 7 gram maximum payload.<br /><br />Many frames have come out of the CrazyFlie community, but none quite fit my needs. One design came close to my specs, and I modified that design in SketchUp Pro, printed out the frame at the <a href="http://cucfablab.org/" target="_blank">Champaign Urbana Community Fab Lab</a>, and took it for a test-fly. Then I went back, made several revisions, and came up with the final product.<br /><br /><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="clear: left; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://thingiverse-production.s3.amazonaws.com/renders/1d/4e/8f/b6/50/CrazyFlieFPVholder_preview_featured.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" src="http://thingiverse-production.s3.amazonaws.com/renders/1d/4e/8f/b6/50/CrazyFlieFPVholder_preview_featured.jpg" height="480" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><i>FPV camera mount</i></td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://thingiverse-production.s3.amazonaws.com/renders/4b/bc/06/a3/00/CrazyFlieFPV5FrameTop_preview_featured.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" src="http://thingiverse-production.s3.amazonaws.com/renders/4b/bc/06/a3/00/CrazyFlieFPV5FrameTop_preview_featured.jpg" height="480" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><i>One of two interlocking prop guards</i></td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://thingiverse-production.s3.amazonaws.com/renders/ac/88/19/c7/de/CrazyflieFPVmotors_preview_featured.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" src="http://thingiverse-production.s3.amazonaws.com/renders/ac/88/19/c7/de/CrazyflieFPVmotors_preview_featured.jpg" height="480" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><i>The prop guards attach to cylinders which snugly fit the CrazyFlie's motors</i></td></tr></tbody></table><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="float: right; margin-left: 1em; text-align: right;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-RuoIk1iy9YE/Uu11H96C0oI/AAAAAAAACEw/80cU4gsjQ8g/s1600/CrazyflieFPVFinal.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="clear: right; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-RuoIk1iy9YE/Uu11H96C0oI/AAAAAAAACEw/80cU4gsjQ8g/s1600/CrazyflieFPVFinal.jpg" height="358" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><i>Final product printed in ABS plastic in two colors, to help indicate the forward position</i></td></tr></tbody></table><div style="text-align: left;">The frame is not indestructible, but it doesn't have to be. It's meant to be sacrificed in the event of an accident, so as to preserve everything else. It's not a hassle to simply print another frame out of ABS plastic filament.</div><div style="text-align: left;"><br /></div><h2 style="text-align: left;">Code it up</h2><div style="text-align: left;">The CrazyFlie can be flown from any PC with the CrazyFlie client software, using a USB radio dongle called the CrazyRadio, and a USB game controller. Xbox and PlayStation type USB controllers work best, and I personally use an inexpensive PlayStation-type controller for my work at EnLiST.</div><div style="text-align: left;"><br /></div><div style="text-align: left;">As some in the CrazyFlie community have pointed out, it's not always convenient to lug around a 5-pound laptop and assorted gear, in order to fly a 19-gram drone. The CrazyFlie was designed to be tiny, and likewise is best served by a tiny computer as a ground control station.</div><div style="text-align: left;"><br /></div><div style="text-align: left;">Enter the Raspberry Pi, a tiny Linux box that many in the Maker community are familiar with. For those who aren't familiar with the RasPi, it's an inexpensive, credit-card sized computer that's packed with ports for audio, USB, HDMI, and Ethernet.</div><div style="text-align: left;"><br /></div><div style="text-align: left;">This tiny computer can be connected to a monitor, keyboard and mouse, and treated much like any normal desktop computer loaded with the Linux operating system. Its 512MB of RAM and 700MHz ARM processor fall short of many recent smartphones in terms of power, but for many applications, you can't beat the size, performance, and efficiency for the price.</div><div style="text-align: left;"><br /></div><div style="text-align: left;">The CrazyFlie is one of those applications where the Pi fits "just right."<br /><br />BitCraze has info about <a href="http://wiki.bitcraze.se/projects:crazyflie:hacks:rasberrypi" target="_blank">how to install the CrazyFlie client on a RasPi</a>. Keep in mind that you must have your CrazyFlie turned on before you launch the client.<br /><br />The RasPi CrazyFlie client works well if you always have access to a USB hub, monitor, and keyboard. But to truly make the RasPi a mobile base station, and run it without all those accessories, some extra steps are required.<br /><br />Ideally, in a headless situation (sans screen and keyboard), the client will start when the CrazyRadio is plugged into the USB port. The BitCraze wiki described a process to make this possible, but for whatever reason, the method didn't work for me.<br /><br />Instead, I created two udev rules. In Linux, any udev rules files in the udev directory are launched at startup and run continuously in the background.<br /><br />It's possible to write a udev rule that launches a program when you plug a particular device into the USB port. In this case, I wanted the cfheadless client to launch when the CrazyRadio is plugged in.<br /><br />First, I created a .rules file in the udev directory, and then opened the file in the nano editor. Logged in as the default user (pi), I created and opened this file from the command line:<br /><br /><pre class="code">sudo touch /etc/udev/rules.d/99-cfheadless.rules</pre><pre class="code">sudo nano /etc/udev/rules.d/99-cfheadless.rules </pre><pre class="code">&nbsp;</pre>The nano editor opened the .rules file, and I coded the rules file as such: <br /><pre class="code"><span style="font-family: inherit;">&nbsp;</span></pre><pre class="code">SUBSYSTEM=="usb", ATTRS{idVendor}=="1915", ATTRS{idProduct}=="7777", MODE=="0664",<br />GROUP=="plugdev", RUN+="/home/pi/crazyflie-pc-client/bin/cfheadless"</pre><pre class="code"><span style="font-family: inherit;">&nbsp;</span></pre>This .rules file executed the cfheadless every time the USB radio was inserted into the Pi. It also had the added benefit of running the client on boot-up, meaning that no login was required.<br /><br />To work correctly, the only stipulation was that the CrazyFlie had to be turned on before the RasPi. The client is up and working when the green LED on the CrazyFlie begins flashing.<br /><br />Pulling out the CrazyRadio automatically kills the client, but won't safely shut down the RasPi. As you may have learned, the RasPi doesn't like to have its power pulled suddenly, as doing so can corrupt the SD card on which everything runs.<br /><br />Fortunately, it's possible to write another udev rule that shuts the RasPi down safely once the radio dongle is pulled. It goes something like this:<br /><br /><pre class="code">ACTION=="remove", ENV{ID_VENDOR_ID}=="1915", ENV{ID_MODEL_ID}=="7777",<br />RUN+="/sbin/shutdown -h now"</pre><br />With these two separate udev rules coded, the RasPi runs the cfheadless client on boot (as long as the dongle is inserted, and the CrazyFlie is live), and properly shuts down once the dongle is removed. No keyboard or monitor necessary.<br /><br />It's the only proper way to travel with the CrazyFlie.<br /><br /><h2>Keep it together</h2><br />With the ground control station set up, everything needed to be protected and portable. A bare RasPi board might look attractive to hackers, but it's no way to travel with the tiny computer.<br /><br />There was no shortage of RasPi cases on the market, and no shortage of makers who've whipped up innovative designs from a wide variety of materials. Adafruit spent a great deal of time developing their own RasPi enclosure, and to the debt of the hacker community, <a href="http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:24461" target="_blank">went open-source with the design.</a></div><div style="text-align: left;"><br />As is my custom, I made a few modifications: a slot for access to the RasPi camera port, and an 8-bit style RasPi logo. Then, again with help from the C-U Community Fab Lab, cut and etched the design out of 1/8" acrylic plastic.</div><div style="text-align: left;"></div><div style="text-align: left;"><br />Clear acrylic was used for the sides and top of the case, and for dramatic effect, black opaque acrylic was used for the bottom.</div><div style="text-align: left;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-baKJ7ZYaoyA/Uu6cripGcXI/AAAAAAAACFA/QOcVBfaV9Z0/s1600/RasPi+case.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-baKJ7ZYaoyA/Uu6cripGcXI/AAAAAAAACFA/QOcVBfaV9Z0/s1600/RasPi+case.jpg" height="358" width="640" /></a></div><div style="text-align: left;"><br /></div><div style="text-align: left;">In the above photo, you'll note an external RasPi camera board is attached. This is actually the official Near Infrared (NoIR) camera board, which, when paired with a blue filter, can be used to remotely sense plant health. More on that in a later post.</div><div style="text-align: left;"><br /></div><div style="text-align: left;">Another case was whipped up for the video receiver, which was simply a plastic projects box. Holes were drilled for RCA video, antenna, and power ports. The receiver module was soldered to a prototyping perfboard, and the perfboard was cut to fit the projects box. As the receiver becomes toasty warm during operation, holes were drilled in the lid for ventilation.</div><div style="text-align: left;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Uxn4QVNgdPI/Uu6fikVvuuI/AAAAAAAACFM/MexKnL9uDUU/s1600/CrazyFlie+FPV+receiver.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Uxn4QVNgdPI/Uu6fikVvuuI/AAAAAAAACFM/MexKnL9uDUU/s1600/CrazyFlie+FPV+receiver.jpg" height="358" width="640" /></a></div><div style="text-align: left;"><br /></div><div style="text-align: left;"><h2>Fly away</h2></div><div style="text-align: left;"><br /></div><div style="text-align: left;">The following video doesn't show the RasPi base station in action, but does document the development process of the FPV nano quadrotor. The "bug's-eye-view" provided by the drone is as unique as it is entertaining.</div><div style="text-align: left;"><br /></div><div style="text-align: left;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="360" src="//www.youtube.com/embed/MO2gAPyWHLE" width="640"></iframe></div><div style="text-align: left;"><br /><h2>The future</h2><br />As the EnLiST grant is working on several new proposals, I won't get into too much detail about what we hope to accomplish with this tiny, FPV-equipped drone. But I will say that because of the value of remote controlled and robotic vehicles for industry, research, and space exploration, we believe they also should be part of STEM education.<br /><br />I will also note that this camera is capable of sensing light in the near infrared part of the spectrum, which as mentioned before, makes it capable of remotely sensing plant biology. Additionally, the camera is just one of many tiny sensors that could be carried by this miniature vehicle.<br /><br />Outside of STEM education and scientific research, tiny drones might hold promise as a means to produce data and compelling video in confined spaces. I'll close with this video of the PD-100 by Prox Dynamics, to show the utility of advanced nano drones indoors.</div><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="480" src="//www.youtube.com/embed/FBxmck16FhA" width="640"></iframe>Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-8443766853979010032014-01-13T22:40:00.004-06:002014-01-14T19:16:35.039-06:00A discussion on deploying drones for international development<div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://www.suasnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/dhl-medicine-drone.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="426" src="http://www.suasnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/dhl-medicine-drone.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br />Last month, Deutsche Post DHL transported six kilograms of medicine from a pharmacy in Bonn, across the Rhine River, to its headquarters.<br /><br />This wouldn't have made international news, except that <a href="http://www.suasnews.com/2014/01/26865/dhl-drone-delivers-medicine-across-the-rhine/" target="_blank">DHL accomplished this with an unmanned aircraft system</a> - commonly known as a drone.<br /><br />This came less than a week after Amazon's Jeff Bezos claimed his company would deliver products to customers' doorsteps via drone in three or four years. <a href="http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/12/02/are-amazon-s-drone-plans-just-a-fantasy.html" target="_blank">Regulations&nbsp; </a>and technological hurdles would make Bezos' plan all but impossible in the US near-term, but DHL proved that with proper planning and logistics, you could deliver small parcels with small drones today.<br /><br />On January 22, The International Research and Exchange Board, or <a href="http://www.irex.org/" target="_blank">IREX</a>, will be hosting a "deep dive" discussion on how this same technology could benefit international development.<br /><br /><a name='more'></a>The goal of this 45-year old not-for-profit is to "enable local individuals and institutions to build key elements of a vibrant society," a mission which includes strengthening <a href="http://www.irex.org/annual-reports/2013/improving-literacy-and-education.html" target="_blank">education</a> and <a href="http://www.irex.org/annual-reports/2013/strengthening-media-and-access-information.html" target="_blank">independent media</a>, and leveraging <a href="http://www.irex.org/annual-reports/2013/leveraging-the-power-of-technology.html" target="_blank">technology for development</a>.<br /><br />I'll be speaking at this event and helping participants envision applications for unmanned aircraft and international development. <a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1wjHMzSroGKCIyzURU7xQ4QJgzPNfYpFT7TZo7rk6qig/edit?usp=sharing" target="_blank">The IREX press release</a> has more information:<br /><br /><blockquote class="tr_bq"><i>We all know the military and surveillance applications of drones, and we can dream of <a href="http://www.amazon.com/b?ie=UTF8&amp;node=8037720011">Amazon Prime Air</a>, but how can unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) be used to improve peoples lives? What innovations with remotely piloted aircraft will accelerate social and economic development?</i></blockquote><blockquote class="tr_bq"><i>Could we deliver medicines via drone? What about finding poachers from the air? Or monitoring the impacts of climate change? And could we speed up disaster response?</i><br /><i><a href="https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1JLHoyG6hGCEkofpYGlPUD048nSbWG3i7KvJfqGbhoZY/viewform">Please RSVP now</a> to join the next IREX Tech Deep Dive where we’ll examine the current and potential role of drones in development with the aim of answering questions like:</i><br /><ul><li><i>What are the current and near future capacities of UAVs?</i></li><li><i>How can we use these functionalities in development?</i></li><li><i>What are the issues and ethics involved with UAVs?</i></li></ul><i>To help us navigate UAV usage, we’ll have five thought leaders sharing their knowledge and opinions:</i><br /><ol><li><i><a href="http://www.fastcoexist.com/user/jessica-leber">Jessica Leber</a>, Fast Company, Co.Exist</i></li><li><i><a href="http://www.linkedin.com/pub/matthew-schroyer/10/9a3/756">Matthew Schroyer</a>, Professional Society of Drone Journalists</i></li><li><i><a href="http://www.linkedin.com/pub/thomas-snitch/4/586/6b0">Tom Snitch</a>, University of Maryland’s Institute for Advanced Computer Studies</i></li><li><i><a href="http://www.linkedin.com/pub/paola-santana/2a/3b7/4b4">Paola Santana</a>, Matternet</i></li><li><i><a href="http://www.linkedin.com/in/timothyreuter">Timothy Reuter</a>, Drone User Group Network</i></li></ol><i><a href="https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1JLHoyG6hGCEkofpYGlPUD048nSbWG3i7KvJfqGbhoZY/viewform">Please RSVP now</a> to join this active, practical event. We’ll have an overview of the state of UAV technology and usage, a lively brainstorming on potential projects, and small teams creating drone project designs and a framework to use with future drone deployments in development. We will even have a drones hands-on for those wanting to test out their piloting skills. You’ll go from talk to action in just one morning!</i><i><br />Note that this event is in-person only, and <b><a href="https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1JLHoyG6hGCEkofpYGlPUD048nSbWG3i7KvJfqGbhoZY/viewform">RSVP is required</a></b> to attend.</i><br /><div style="margin-left: 20px;"><i><a href="https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1JLHoyG6hGCEkofpYGlPUD048nSbWG3i7KvJfqGbhoZY/viewform">Drones for Development</a><br />IREX Tech Deep Dive<br />8:30 am -12:30pm<br />Wednesday, January 22nd<br />Washington, DC, 20005</i></div><i>Excited? Then check out our <a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1wO6z9223yGqfYzGuaIebBLtUzrLXx62xaIm1y9VuQb8/edit?usp=sharing">curated list of resources</a> to deepen your understanding of the issues and possibilities of drones in development.</i></blockquote>In the United States, journalists are severely limited to access to the skies, and only hobbyists or government institutions can fly drones. However in developing countries, there are a multitude of ways in which drones could aid reporters.<br /><br />Above protests in <a href="http://www.dronejournalism.org/news/2013/12/new-drone-videos-show-clashes-between-police-and-protesters-in-bangkok" target="_blank">Thailand</a>, Turkey, Argentina, Estonia, Poland, and Russia, we've seen how small unmanned aircraft can give critical insight into the size of political uprisings, and provide evidence of police tactics. We just as likely could see reporters in developing nations using drones to monitor elections, record human rights abuses, and measure the impact of natural disasters and resource extraction.<br /><br />Next to delivery drones, drone journalism may be the most widely-known use of this technology. But in the developed world, the largest single sector for unmanned technology will be agriculture. Drones both large and small have potential as vehicles to precisely deliver pesticides and herbicides, and collect crop data that allow minimum inputs for maximum yields.<br /><br />Where access to water is at a premium, drones could help farmers do more with less. And any time a producer can reduce environmental impact through reduced chemical use or sustainable farming methods, the local community and the ecosystem benefit.<br /><br />Of course, this isn't to diminish the value of the drone as a means of transport. Paola Santana, Co-Founder, Head of Regulatory &amp; Legal Affairs at <a href="http://matternet.us/" target="_blank">Matternet</a>, is one of the people working to make airborne delivery a possibility where ground-based delivery is treacherous or impossible. She'll also be speaking at IREX.<br /><br />In "developed" countries, where drones have to weave through increasingly cluttered skies and negotiate numerous physical and legal complexities on the ground, drones have to <i>avoid the infrastructure</i>. But in an international development context, where drones deliver much-needed services to undeserved areas, drones <i>become the infrastructure.</i><br /><br />It could turn out that developing countries are in the best position to make use of this technology.Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-79103564015816948742013-12-24T10:49:00.001-06:002013-12-24T13:20:28.049-06:00Missed target, found hooliganism on drone mapping mission<table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-bPjnUFwJ4YM/UD4wUK1XNiI/AAAAAAAAAkQ/ggbFvPZ6s98/s1600/_DSC8212.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="358" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-bPjnUFwJ4YM/UD4wUK1XNiI/AAAAAAAAAkQ/ggbFvPZ6s98/s640/_DSC8212.JPG" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><i>A small unmanned aircraft system for mapping, developed for a National Science Foundation grant to improve STEM education.</i></td></tr></tbody></table><br />In north Louisiana, there’s a fantastic little place known for Muscadine grapes, pecans, and on occasion, alligators.<br /><br />Muscadines always get turned into jelly; an excellent topping for southern-style biscuits (my wife says she’s still working on mastering the family biscuit recipe, but she’s produced the finest biscuits I’ve ever had the pleasure of eating).<br /><br />Pecans, a grocery bag of which could fetch a gold bar by northern exchange rates, are so plentiful that they must be given away. They’re so much a part of my wife’s heritage that we decided to get married beneath those pecan trees.<br /><br />And when the water is high in the backyard bayou, a small alligator sometimes will make itself at home. If the alligator is lovingly cared for and becomes fat, a portion of that alligator eventually will make its way to our dinner table in the form of a delightful alligator sauce piquant (wife insists that it be cooked like shrimp, and not burnt to a crisp as it’s done here in the North).<br /><br />So before we went down to visit my wife’s family farm for Thanksgiving, I decided to pack up one of the “drones” I’ve developed at the <a href="http://enlist.illinois.edu/" target="_blank">National Science Foundation grant where I work</a>, to see if I couldn’t map out this interesting place.<br /><br /><a name='more'></a><br /><br /><h2>Why map?</h2><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-B7szHnf6pto/Urid2UxQ3DI/AAAAAAAAB_M/kI9O7zhpM6U/s1600/falcon+uav+flooding.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="320" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-B7szHnf6pto/Urid2UxQ3DI/AAAAAAAAB_M/kI9O7zhpM6U/s640/falcon+uav+flooding.jpg" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><i>Aerial photo of flooding in Colorado by Falcon UAV.</i></td></tr></tbody></table><br />First, a little background on drone mapping. Since early 2012, <a href="http://will.illinois.edu/news/story/states-look-to-limit-domestic-drones-amid-privacy-safety-concerns" target="_blank">I’ve been working with high school students in Illinois</a> to build small unmanned aircraft capable of mapping out natural habitats, farms, and interesting bits of geology and geography. We’ve come a long way since our beginning, but some development challenges remain.<br /><br />Governments have used unmanned aircraft systems, more commonly known as drones, <a href="http://www.slate.com/blogs/future_tense/2013/11/20/matthew_schroyer_discusses_drone_journalism_in_this_episode_of_the_drone.html" target="_blank">to make measurements and gain important information during the Fukushima nuclear crisis</a>. While it hasn’t been done just yet, drones also could be used by journalists to measure the extent of natural and man-made disasters, and to compare those measurements with government reports (or produce the numbers where governments can’t or won’t).<br /><br />Mapping drones also could help citizens on the ground understand what is happening to their communities, such as when <a href="http://www.falcon-uav.com/falcon-uav-news/2013/9/14/-falcon-uav-supports-colorado-flooding-until-grounded-by-fem.html" target="_blank">Falcon UAV deployed a system during the fall 2013 flooding in Colorado.</a><br /><br /><h2>About the drone.</h2><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-q7838m_HjHQ/Urif-QxZ93I/AAAAAAAAB_Y/gw7opAcm5fo/s1600/apm+chdk+testing.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="358" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-q7838m_HjHQ/Urif-QxZ93I/AAAAAAAAB_Y/gw7opAcm5fo/s640/apm+chdk+testing.JPG" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><i>The autopilot, which was configured to trigger a hacked camera, was tested on the workbench before being installed in the aircraft.</i></td><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><br /></td><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><br /></td></tr></tbody></table><br />Regardless whether the application is research, STEM education, or journalism, drones used for mapping don’t have to be complex. It just has to hold a camera in the air. Everything else is designed to make sure the camera is in the right place at the right time.<br /><br />The drone I brought to Louisiana began life as an electric, balsa-frame RC airplane with a 1.7-meter wingspan. What turns it into a mapping machine, however, is a GPS-guided, Arduino-based, sensor-packed autopilot linked to a hacked point-and-shoot camera.<br /><br />Million-dollar mapping airplanes use much, much better sensors, but don’t let this consumer-grade camera fool you. When you’re flying at 100 meters above the ground, your ground sampling resolution can top the best of them. <br /><br /><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="float: left; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-NxpggG94yPc/UGuC0ucfvfI/AAAAAAAAAks/dkhBpJP6Tkg/s1600/Flight+13+Stitch.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="254" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-NxpggG94yPc/UGuC0ucfvfI/AAAAAAAAAks/dkhBpJP6Tkg/s640/Flight+13+Stitch.jpg" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><i>An earlier mosaic of the test site produced by the same plane, with a different camera.</i></td></tr></tbody></table><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />This “Turkey flight” wasn’t the system’s maiden voyage. In mid-2012, I flew a very similar setup to create an aerial mosaic of the test site. Due to a faulty GPS and camera lens distortion, that mission didn’t yield much in the way of geospatial data – i.e., a model of the ground in which to accurately measure features or changes.<br /><br />Even with those setbacks, however, the experience provided valuable “stick time” and critical lessons on planning and executing a drone mapping mission.<br /><br /><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-lvNYb3HQnkA/UriiddZia7I/AAAAAAAAB_k/0RYrJ0-BdHg/s1600/canon+camera+install.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="358" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-lvNYb3HQnkA/UriiddZia7I/AAAAAAAAB_k/0RYrJ0-BdHg/s640/canon+camera+install.JPG" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><i>The drone's camera was installed using a hook-and-loop strap, and a standard camera bolt.</i></td></tr></tbody></table><br />Besides a new GPS and camera, there were only a few improvements made to this unmanned aircraft. As previously mentioned on this website, I designed and laser-cut a quick-release module to house the autopilot, GPS receiver, and the lithium polymer battery <a href="http://cucfablab.org/" target="_blank">(with the help of the CU Community Fab Lab)</a>. All equipment was thoroughly tested on the ground before the flight.<br /><br /><h2>Mission planning: how slow can you go?</h2><br />Perhaps the most critical variable in planning a drone mapping mission is the stall speed of the aircraft. Below this speed, the lift generated by the airplane’s wings becomes less than the force of the Earth’s gravity, and thus the airplane begins to fall.<br /><br /><div style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-size: large;"><span style="font-size: x-large;">V = √( 2 W g / ρ S Clmax )</span><span style="font-size: x-small;"><i><br /><br />V = velocity in m/s<br />W = weight in kg<br />g = acceleration due to gravity (9.8 m/s^2)</i></span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;"><i><br />ρ = </i></span><span style="font-size: large;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"><i>air density in kg/m^3<br />S = wing area in m^2<br />Clmax = coefficient of lift at stall</i></span></span></span></div><br />Because things like air density, mass, angle of attack, and wing characteristics all affect the stall speed, the calculation can be somewhat involved. Aviation.co.uk has a great manual if you'd like to dig into specifics <a href="http://www.aviation.org.uk/docs/flighttest.navair.navy.milunrestricted-FTM108/c3.pdf" target="_blank">(pdf)</a>. But if you’re willing to make some assumptions, the calculation can be simplified.<br /><br /><div style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-size: large;"><span style="font-size: x-large;">V = 3.7√(W/S)<span style="font-size: x-small;"><br />&nbsp;</span></span></span> <span style="font-size: large;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"><i>V = velocity in mi/h<br />W = weight in oz</i></span></span><span style="font-size: large;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"><i><br />S = wing area in ft^2</i></span></span></span></div><br />Using the super-accurate method of stepping on the bathroom scale with the aircraft, I found that my drone probably weighed less than I had expected – about 6.2 pounds, or 99.2 ounces. Using that number, and the area of the wing, I found that 16.5 miles per hour (or 7.4 meters per second) was probably the slowest I could fly without having the plane drop from the sky.<br /><br />The stall speed determines most other critical parameters in during mapping mission. GIS experts use as many overlapping 2D images as possible to generate an accurate 3D model of terrain. So the slower you can fly, the more images you can take, and the better model you will have.<br /><br />When flying at a higher altitude, each image will cover more land. However, that comes at the expense of Ground Sample Resolution, or GSD. In other words, the resulting map will not be as detailed as a map created from images obtained at a lower altitude. Mission planning always is a compromise between speed, area, and precision.<br /><br /><h2>Mission planning: flight planning and configuration.</h2><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-l6ZmykQfcr8/Uriq_mYoRWI/AAAAAAAAB_0/Kl4Ydd2nmPY/s1600/Turkey+flight+plan.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="384" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-l6ZmykQfcr8/Uriq_mYoRWI/AAAAAAAAB_0/Kl4Ydd2nmPY/s640/Turkey+flight+plan.jpg" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><i>A screenshot of the mission planner, showing the flight plan for the Turkey mapping missions. The large circles around these waypoints, which have radii of 91 meters, denote the area the drone would need to fly within to consider the waypoint reached. It would prove to be a challenge for the mapping drone.</i></td></tr></tbody></table><br />Speaking of field of view, coming up with a lawnmower-style flight pattern previously required doing some trigonometry (determine the image area for a given altitude, factor in overlap, find time delay between images and width of the swath). Fortunately there’s now a feature in the autopilot configuration app that does those calculations automatically.<br /><br />After you specify your drone’s camera model and cruising altitude, the app will create a flight plan with the appropriate width between waypoints, and will configure the autopilot to trigger the camera at the necessary distances.<br /><br />This feature is nice, but there’s still much more to consider in planning a drone mapping mission, and some of it might only come from experience. For example, what altitude are you comfortable at flying? Too high, and the drone will become difficult to see (and thus difficult control in the event of malfunction) or will exceed the 400-foot, FAA-mandated ceiling. Too low, and you could clip a tree.<br /><br />Additionally, greater distance means mapping a greater area, but again, you risk going beyond visual line of sight. You might also exceed the range for your ground control station (in this case, your radio controller), but fortunately the autopilot has a failsafe feature that will make the drone return and circle above the “home” location when the control link is lost (when configured correctly). And generally speaking, most consumer or hobby-grade radios have a range that goes beyond visual line of sight.<br /><br />For this mission, I set my cruising altitude at 100 meters, and my farthest waypoint about 170 meters from myself (“home”). Based on the camera and altitude, the mission planner’s automatic mapping application configured the autopilot to take photos every 61.7 meters. Read on, and you’ll find out if those were the best mission parameters.<br /><br /><h2>Executing the mission.</h2><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-WyeDDns8SL8/UrirbUBqouI/AAAAAAAAB_8/StN8DMb3Nxk/s1600/Turkey+Flight+2+KMZ+viz.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="362" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-WyeDDns8SL8/UrirbUBqouI/AAAAAAAAB_8/StN8DMb3Nxk/s640/Turkey+Flight+2+KMZ+viz.jpg" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><i>One type of visualization produced from the flight data. When the track color changes, it indicates that the flight mode has been switched from manual to automatic, or automatic to manual. </i></td></tr></tbody></table><br />On Thanksgiving day, after a couple of flights to test all the aircraft’s systems, I made a run above the creek at the back of the property.&nbsp; To better understand what the airplane was doing, I extracted the .LOG flight data from the autopilot, and converted it into two different geospatial files: a .KMZ and a .GPX file.<br /><br />I opened both files in Google Earth, and then let GE play the .GPX file in real time on top of the .KMZ data. Below is a visualization of that flight. The grey walls represent the autopilot’s programmed waypoints and flight path.<br /><br /><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="360" src="//www.youtube.com/embed/5hfZgffcfeE" width="640"></iframe> <br /><br />Once automatic flight was engaged, the plane clipped the first waypoint, and made a wide turn for the second and third, missing the programmed flight path. From the ground, it appeared as if the plane was flying too low and might clip a tree (flight data showed the plane dropped below 30 meters). I aborted automatic flight, swung the plane over the field, and climbed to about 80 meters before trying the run again.<br /><br />I didn’t know this at the time, but the autopilot will not re-start a whole mission from the start without the power being cycled. In other words, when you flip back into automatic flight, the plane will head to the next waypoint on its list.<br /><br />So when I turned automatic flight on for the second time, the plane made another wide turn over the field and headed for waypoint 4, instead of restarting the mission and aiming for waypoint 1. This was not obvious from the ground.<br /><br />After waypoint 4, the plane gently banked to hit waypoint 5. At this point, the plane was out of waypoints, and was programed to “loiter” in a circular path above the location where it first obtained a GPS lock (“home”).<br /><br />It was very clear from the ground that the plane was done with its mission, because the plane was orbiting above my head. I briefly flipped into manual, and back into automatic flight, in an attempt to get the mission to restart (which as previously mentioned, doesn’t work).<br /><br />However, from the ground, the plane’s wide orbit made it appear that it was still attempting to map the bayou. When the plane eventually returned to circle above my head, I thought the mission was complete. Finally, I switched into manual control and brought the aircraft in for landing.<br /><br /><h2>Post-flight analysis.</h2><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-PN_ShqFoUIo/UriuHMmILLI/AAAAAAAACAI/zXYuGgREnE4/s1600/IMG_0218.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="480" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-PN_ShqFoUIo/UriuHMmILLI/AAAAAAAACAI/zXYuGgREnE4/s640/IMG_0218.JPG" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><i>Near-vertical aerial photo taken of the bayou at the property's edge, on Thanksgiving day 2013. A rather large rainstorm swept through the area two days before, so the bayou's water level is slightly higher than average.</i></td></tr></tbody></table><br />Something seemed off when I perused the camera’s SD card. I only had 33 photos, and no two photos seemed to have any overlapping features, which would be necessary to generate a 3D model of the ground.<br /><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-XE3oO_tVtrY/UriwwgyI90I/AAAAAAAACAU/cNdNQ40rkp8/s1600/IMG_0197.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="640" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-XE3oO_tVtrY/UriwwgyI90I/AAAAAAAACAU/cNdNQ40rkp8/s640/IMG_0197.JPG" width="480" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><i>This aerial photo was taken quite close to the treetops. Too close for comfort, perhaps. However it also is one of the highest-resolution pictures I have of the little bayou.</i></td></tr></tbody></table><br /><br />The autopilot stores the GPS time, latitude, longitude, and airplane orientation for each time it triggers the camera, so it wasn’t hard find out what happened. I opened the flight data in Excel and filtered the camera trigger data, and found that the autopilot attempted to trigger the camera 66 times during the mission.<br /><br />Due to the CHDK macro on the camera, and the autopilot’s triggering method, the camera was only taking an image on every other trigger.<br /><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-067zLGPdSqc/UrixvRvB3YI/AAAAAAAACAc/WksfAiF1_pk/s1600/IMG_0204.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="480" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-067zLGPdSqc/UrixvRvB3YI/AAAAAAAACAc/WksfAiF1_pk/s640/IMG_0204.JPG" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><i>Near the center-left of this image, covered in the shade of the treeline, are the family-famous Muscadine vines.</i></td></tr></tbody></table><br /><br />I ran the images through mosaicking and ground modeling programs, but none of those attempts yielded any usable mosaics or ground models.<br /><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-3s-3D5tS6os/UriyguyDuaI/AAAAAAAACAk/E6jmuEydYyk/s1600/IMG_0194.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="640" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-3s-3D5tS6os/UriyguyDuaI/AAAAAAAACAk/E6jmuEydYyk/s640/IMG_0194.JPG" width="480" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><i>An image over the highway, at the south-east end of the property. Near the center-right of the image, up and to the right of the utility pole, a brown track reveals a spot where water washes over the highway and down into the property.</i></td></tr></tbody></table><br /><h2>Salvaging data and uncovering shenanigans.</h2><br />It was a little disheartening to go through all that work and not end up with any of the “good stuff.” But then I remembered Mapknitter, a website which allows kite and balloon photographers to manually stretch and stitch their aerial images into a mosaic over satellite photos.<br /><br />Below is a Mapknitter project with some of my drone’s images, stitched over existing Google Earth satellite photos. Not all images could salvaged, especially oblique images taken when the plane was banked. Some images of neighbors’ properties also were omitted. <br /><br /><br /><br /><iframe height="600" src="http://archive.publiclab.org/leaflet/?tms=http://mapknitter.org/tms/prairie-bayou-la/&amp;lat=32.378561&amp;lon=-92.056544" style="border: none;" width="600"></iframe> <br /><br />This method doesn’t produce accurate geospatial data, but it’s a way to salvage some of the mapping drone’s data.&nbsp; These mosaics still can tell an interesting story about the ground, and in this case, something interesting was uncovered on the southeast end of the property.<br /><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-9WS3gAVTKro/Uri2uPPQg9I/AAAAAAAACAw/oPEVMfqcSFI/s1600/IMG_0208.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="640" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-9WS3gAVTKro/Uri2uPPQg9I/AAAAAAAACAw/oPEVMfqcSFI/s640/IMG_0208.JPG" width="480" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><i>This image obtained from the mapping drone is evidence of some tomfoolery happening at the far end of the property.</i></td></tr></tbody></table><br />See the elliptical ruts in the dirt? Those aren’t natural features, but rather evidence of some pickup-truck driving hooligans making donuts on someone else’s land.<br /><br />My wife’s family was not surprised.<br /><br /><h2>The big takeaways.</h2><br />It probably was foolish to assume that a universal autopilot, which could be configured fairly easily to automatically fly anything from octocopters to foam wings, wouldn’t need some fine tuning to suit my particular aircraft.<br /><br />This small unmanned aircraft system worked very well in many respects. The autopilot didn’t wildly oscillate the aircraft into a stall when it came to navigating between waypoints. Its documentation is quite clear that these default settings are purposefully conservative. Having said that, the turning and waypoint radius needs to be reduced, and the shutter interval needs to be halved.<br /><br />While I overestimated the ability for the autopilot to adapt to this particular plane and mapping mission, I underestimated the ability of the plane to handle the job.<br /><br />I marked off an area of about 7,030 square meters to map, but the drone easily could have mapped 125,000 square meters (almost 30 acres) or more. Keeping the aircraft confined to such a small space made it difficult to accurately navigate through waypoints.<br /><br />If I had to produce a list of three big takeaways from this experience, it would look like the following:<br /><br /><ol><li><b>Each drone is a unique and special snowflake.</b> The autopilot might be "open source" and "universal," but for each system, it must be tested and tuned well before deployment.</li><li><b>Drones are far more capable than ourselves. </b>For many applications, the limit of the drone's practical ability no longer is battery time, sensors, or optics, but rather regulations and the frailty of the human operator. I could have flown this aircraft well above 400-foot regulatory limits, and the 2-3 mile range of the 72Mhz radio equipment could have carried the plane well beyond my visual line of sight (VLOS). Underestimating the ability of the aircraft means difficulty in executing small-scale mapping missions.</li><li><b>Even botched missions can produce interesting data.</b> Couldn't get the mapping data you were hoping for? Sometimes it's not all about 3D models and measurements. The ground changes all the time, and commercial satellite photos are low-resolution and few and far between. At the very least, the operator will gain valuable experience with the unmanned aircraft.</li></ol>Since returning from the Turkey Flight, high school students here in the central Illinois Drones for Schools STEM program have examined the data, and used it to inform their own mapping drone development.<br /><br />It probably will be another six months before I have another opportunity to do any mapping in Louisiana, but there's plenty of interesting places to map here.<br /><br /><i>This flight was conducted in accordance with regulations prescribed in Federal Aviation Administration advisory circular (AC) 91-57, by an insured, card-holding member of the Academy of Model Aeronautics, on private land with the permission of the property-holder.</i>Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-88454477525791531102013-11-25T19:54:00.002-06:002013-11-26T10:46:33.779-06:00There's been a big uptick in drone research over the last decade<div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-cSP_LtLxIFg/UpPr1YZMdzI/AAAAAAAAB4M/ur_j0sFW93Q/s1600/UAS+volume+of+published+papers.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="194" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-cSP_LtLxIFg/UpPr1YZMdzI/AAAAAAAAB4M/ur_j0sFW93Q/s640/UAS+volume+of+published+papers.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br />Recently, I was tasked with producing some basic citations on unmanned aerial vehicles, more commonly called drones, for a new grant proposal. As you could imagine, it was not hard to find a cornucopia of papers reflecting the many novel uses for the technology.<br /><br />What might surprise some, though, was the <i>sheer increase</i> in drone research, <i>how popular </i>these papers are in the academic world<i>, what</i> that research trying to accomplish, and <i>who</i> was funding it.<br /><br /><a name='more'></a><br />I did some additional digging on Thompson Reuters Web of Knowledge, searching for articles produced in the last 10 years (2003-2013) that had the keywords "UAV" or "UAS" (Unmanned Aircraft System), and that contained the word "aircraft." The WOK returned 4,184 papers.<br /><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: left;">At the top of the post is a graph generated by <a href="http://tools.medialab.sciences-po.fr/sciencescape/index.php">SienceScape</a>, which plotted the number of papers per year. It's pretty, but doesn't give a sense of scale. Below are some bar graphs produced by WOS that better illustrates the trend. </div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: left;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/--vfYd6Gd4wU/UpPvJKzIswI/AAAAAAAAB4Y/ZiFa3qkF22M/s1600/UAS+published+papers+value.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="244" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/--vfYd6Gd4wU/UpPvJKzIswI/AAAAAAAAB4Y/ZiFa3qkF22M/s640/UAS+published+papers+value.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: left;"><br /></div><br />The number of published papers with either UAV or UAS jumped 400%, with just 131 papers in 2003 with those keywords, to 655 papers in 2012. Interestingly, there's been a slight drop in UAV research this year.<br /><br />Also take a look at the graph on the right (which goes into 2014). Citations have grown from 0 in 2003, to 2,216 in 2012, meaning the substance of these papers is becoming more popular.<br /><br />So the general topic of drones is becoming more popular, but what about the content of those papers? ScienceScape analyzed keywords of those 4,184 papers and came up with the following graph:<br /><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-YA7WaBWdo6Q/UpPxGRGOFFI/AAAAAAAAB4k/Gr5uc3thfAQ/s1600/UAS+top+13.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="294" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-YA7WaBWdo6Q/UpPxGRGOFFI/AAAAAAAAB4k/Gr5uc3thfAQ/s640/UAS+top+13.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"></div><a href="http://www.springer.com/engineering/robotics/journal/10846"><i><br /></i></a>&nbsp;These are the top 13 keywords from all the UAV/UAS papers over the last decade. Immediately, you can see that the "UAV" acronym is much, much more popular than "UAS." In fact, researchers used UAV as a keyword 23 times more frequently than UAS.<br /><br />It should be noted that UAS refers to an entire system, meaning the aircraft and ground station. This may just mean that researchers were 23 times more likely to conduct research on the just the aircraft, than they were on the entire system. Nevertheless, it's a telling statistic.<br /><br />You can, however, tell from the graph that UAS is becoming more popular among researchers.<br /><br />The frontrunners after UAV and variations thereof? Path planning, followed be remote sensing, followed by navigation, flight, control, and collision avoidance. Path planning and flight control are declining in popularity, while simulation and navigation appear to be on the rise.<br /><br />The popularity of these research areas might reflect hopes or expectations in the US and abroad to integrate unmanned aircraft among manned aircraft into airspace.<br /><br />Also becoming more popular among drone researchers is the quadrotor, which is a VTOL aircraft with four spinning blades.<br /><br />Finally, I took the data about the organizations the funded this research <a href="http://www-958.ibm.com/v/343967">and made a treemap</a> using IBM's Many Eyes app. Any organization that funded more than one paper was included.<br /><br /><script src="http://www-958.ibm.com/me/visualizations/a51d6208563811e391c2000255111976/comments/a5208776563811e391c2000255111976.js" type="text/javascript"></script> Right off the bat, you can see that China is a major player when it comes to drone research. The Natural Science Foundation of China alone has contributed 48 papers in the past decade, and agencies in the country as a whole has contributed 92 papers by my count.<br /><br />United States agencies funded 80 papers by my count, with 33 papers coming out of National Science Foundation research, and 19 papers coming out of military research agencies (DARPA, Navy and Air Force). Korea also showed up as a strong financier of drone research.<br /><br />Feel free to splice and remix this data on how you please. I've made public CSV and TXT files for the data behind the <a href="https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B5Z9Y8dwWqggVzFFOGFuQ0Q2N1E/edit?usp=sharing">SicenceScape keywords visualization</a> and the <a href="https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B5Z9Y8dwWqgga1psQmxtbnZOdzQ/edit?usp=sharing">Many Eyes drone research treemap</a>.Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-47844414930226859672013-10-28T10:00:00.000-05:002013-10-28T10:29:57.764-05:00Building and flying an incredibly tiny quadrotor drone<div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-SA2M0upkJXA/UmljNM2J2xI/AAAAAAAAB08/g3eE1Kn29ko/s1600/1380138223758.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="640" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-SA2M0upkJXA/UmljNM2J2xI/AAAAAAAAB08/g3eE1Kn29ko/s640/1380138223758.jpg" width="480" /></a></div><br /><br />At the National Science Foundation grant where I work, EnLiST, we've been tinkering with various different drone platforms which could be easily deployed in classrooms for valuable STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics) lessons.<br /><br />Although we're focused on STEM education, it's not hard to see how some of these drones can be used in a variety of other fields. The quadrotors we develop one day could be deployed for research in environmental science, geology, city planning, and even "evidence-based" journalism.<br /><br />Drones are useful like that. At the end of they day, they're simply a means of getting a sensor from one place to another. What you use that sensor for, is entirely up to the teacher, scientist, or journalist.<br /><br />We needed a drone that was small enough to fly in a classroom, easy enough for children to fly (not saying much as kids tend to pilot drones with relative ease), and hackable enough that we could mold it to fit our science curriculum.<br /><br /><br /><blockquote class="twitter-tweet"><p>Giving the CrazyFlie nano quadrotor a spin in the EnLiST grant office. We call it &quot;bumble.&quot; <a href="https://t.co/ySDnm26wAi">https://t.co/ySDnm26wAi</a></p>&mdash; Matthew Schroyer (@matthew_ryan) <a href="https://twitter.com/matthew_ryan/statuses/389790237733695488">October 14, 2013</a></blockquote><script async src="//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script><br /><br />Enter the Crazyflie nano, a tiny, open-source drone developed by Swedish hackers at <a href="http://bitcraze.se/">Bitcraze.se</a>. At 19 grams, and measuring 9 cm from motor to motor, it's one of the smallest quadrotor drones on the market today.<br /><br /><a name='more'></a><br />Operation is fairly straightforward. The Crazyflie uses a 2.4 Ghz "Crazradio," which is plugged into a computer USB port for communication. Control is provided via USB game pad (not included), with the Xbox and Playstation-type controllers having preference by the development community.<br /><br />Bitcraze has published a client for the Crazyflie, <a href="http://wiki.bitcraze.se/projects:crazyflie:pc_utils:install">available here.</a><br /><br /><h2><span style="font-size: x-large;">Assembly </span></h2><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-6AYUqnMjqy0/Umljp_wRYCI/AAAAAAAAB1E/DGXB59yxzlo/s1600/20130918_103757.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="640" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-6AYUqnMjqy0/Umljp_wRYCI/AAAAAAAAB1E/DGXB59yxzlo/s640/20130918_103757.jpg" width="480" /></a></div><br />Assembly is required. Most of the assembly is straightforward: pop the clear plastic motor adapters on the Crazyflie, twist the motor leads, install the motors. But things get tricky when trying to solder the tiny motor wires onto the circuit board.<br /><br />Bitcraze's <a href="http://wiki.bitcraze.se/projects:crazyflie:mechanics:assembly">assembly instructions</a> suggest threading the bare wire through the holes and then soldering them. I had better luck with applying solder to the backside of the soldering pads (the opposite side of where the micro USB is mounted), and with tweezers in one hand and a soldering iron in the other, re-heating the solder and pushing the wire through at the same time.<br /><br />Tweezers, a stand with grippers, and a soldering iron with a fine point is highly recommended.<br /><br /><h2>Flying the Crazyflie</h2><br />You won't need much room to fly a Crazyflie, once you are experienced. A 2 m x 2 m area is really all that you need, although more space lets you practice more acrobatics.<br /><br />There are quadrotors on the market that are a little larger and offer more stability, but the Crazyflie is fairly predictable and can be mastered with a bit of practice. This device is in continual development, and new releases could provide more stability.<br /><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-p-0lVB9puiM/Umlsas3L7RI/AAAAAAAAB1c/tL0eelCmDJo/s1600/crazyflie+thrust+values.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-p-0lVB9puiM/Umlsas3L7RI/AAAAAAAAB1c/tL0eelCmDJo/s1600/crazyflie+thrust+values.jpg" /></a></div>If the Crazyflie continues to be a challenge, try adjusting the max and min thrust values in the Crazyflie client (75% and 35% are a good alternatives to the stock values). This will keep the speed of your motors in a smaller band, which can reduce jerky, twitchy behavior.<br /><br />If things do go south (and they likely will for the first 2-5 flights), the Crazyflie is quite robust. It doesn't really have enough weight to put tremendous stress on the motor arms, and I don't think a person is likely to break anything unless they fly this quadrotor at the limits of speed and altitude.<br /><br />Having said that, I suggest flying over carpeted surfaces whenever possible.<br /><br /><h2>Hacks, mods, and nano FPV</h2><br />You don't buy a Crazyflie for stability, though. You buy this flying circuit board because it is controlled through the Python programming language. In other words, it's built to be hacked.<br /><br />What machinations have the masterminds of the Crazyflie developer community come up with? For one, they've hacked a system using the Xbox Kinect <a href="http://www.bitcraze.se/2013/08/autopilot-using-kinect-and-a-pc/">to hold the position</a> of the Crazyflie in space.<br /><br /><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="480" src="//www.youtube.com/embed/UzFwg2Fpv4E" width="640"></iframe> <br /><br />What's better than a nano drone with four rotors? A nano drone with eight motors. Hackers also have experimented with turning this tiny quadrotor into an X8 multicopter, which would increase the payload capacity for sensors or video equipment.<br /><br />The factory spec Crazyflie is claimed to lift 5 - 10 grams of payload, with a penalty in the form of reduced flight time (down to 3-4 minutes from 7-10 minutes). <a href="http://forum.bitcraze.se/viewtopic.php?f=6&amp;t=348&amp;start=20">It's claimed</a> this tiny X8 copter can lift 5 extra grams (50% increase) with similar flight time.<br /><br />X8s suffer from a 10% efficiency penalty compared to their quadrotored brethren. But the extra stability granted through eight spinning propellers can trump the reduced flight time in applications where steady shots are valued over endurance.<br /><br /><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="360" src="//www.youtube.com/embed/Llj7umnwbH4" width="640"></iframe> <br /><br />As I've written, this device is in constant development, so new features and improvements pop up from time to time. One of the most recent firmware revisions makes use of the Crazyflie's embedded barometric pressure sensor to <a href="http://www.bitcraze.se/2013/10/altitude-hold/">hold altitude with the press of a button</a>.<br /><br />We know these can be powerful tools for STEM education. But how could researchers use them? Perhaps they could map the interior of buildings to find chemical leaks and injured people.<br /><br />And what about journalists? Perhaps they could use nano drones like the researchers, but with a mind to informing the public.<br /><br />Whichever application is chosen, a smaller drone ultimately is a safer drone.Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-74421512732223972282013-10-18T14:18:00.000-05:002013-10-18T14:18:09.343-05:00Measure air pollution in your home or backyard with a DustDuino<div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-HTdN5Qg4Mf8/UmCl7W1rgSI/AAAAAAAABys/VgxbdptOeTw/s1600/dustduino+proto+2+desk.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="358" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-HTdN5Qg4Mf8/UmCl7W1rgSI/AAAAAAAABys/VgxbdptOeTw/s640/dustduino+proto+2+desk.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><span id="goog_1033043237"></span><span id="goog_1033043238"></span><br />This week, the World Health Organization (WHO) took a major step by announcing that air pollution is carcinogenic to humans.<br /><br />WHO also announced they are considering particulate matter, a major component of indoor and outdoor air pollution, as carcinogenic to humans as well.<br /><br /><blockquote class="twitter-tweet">International Agency for Research on Cancer announced today: outdoor <a href="https://twitter.com/search?q=%23airpollution&amp;src=hash">#airpollution</a> is leading environmental cause of <a href="https://twitter.com/search?q=%23cancer&amp;src=hash">#cancer</a> deaths<br />— WHO (@WHO) <a href="https://twitter.com/WHO/statuses/390771647461859328">October 17, 2013</a></blockquote><script async="" charset="utf-8" src="//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js"></script> <br />The <a href="http://www.iarc.fr/">International Agency for Research on Cancer</a> (IARC), a special unit inside WHO tasked with promoting international collaborations on cancer research, reached that conclusion after reviewing more than 1000 scientific papers on the carcinogenicity of air pollutants.<br /><br />Air pollution and particulate matter will be included in IARC's Monograph, which is an encyclopedia of known carcinogens. Particulate matter will be classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, along with tobacco smoke and asbestos.<br /><br />In an IARC press release [1], the Deputy Head of the Monographs Programme, Dr. Dana Loomis, said that the group's goal was to "evaluate the air everyone breathes rather than focus on specific air pollutants."<br /><br />"The results from the reviewed studies point in the same direction: the risk of developing lung cancer is significantly increased in people exposed to air pollution," he said.<br /><br />This finding elevates the urgency to clean up the air, both outdoors and indoors. But how does one find out the condition of the air in the first place? How healthy is your air?<br /><br /><a name='more'></a>Finding that answer can be difficult and expensive. Most Environmental Protection Agency-quality particulate matter monitors send air through a filter, which must be precisely weighed, and produce only one reading a day. Other EPA monitors that sample continuously cost more than $14,000 each to deploy.[2]<br /><br />Mass concentration is the norm for quantifying airborne particulate matter worldwide, and is usually expressed in micrograms of particulates per cubic meter of air (μg/m3). However, there are an increasing number of affordable particulate sensors coming on the market which rely instead on lasers and LEDs to count the number of particles instead.<br /><br />For more background on the specifics of particulate matter sensing, please refer to earlier work on Mental Munition regarding particle counting sensors [3,4]. This post will focus on hacking together your own <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2013/05/dustduino-plan-to-crowdsource.html">DustDuino</a> prototype, which will allow you to monitor dust levels in your home (or back yard) from anywhere you have internet access, for about $100.<br /><br />What will the end product look like, online? <a href="http://xively.com/feeds/499600824">It will look a little like this (my own live DustDuino feed).</a><br /><br />To make a DustDuino, you will need:<br /><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-4VxDLuDJfP8/UmCoqUufsLI/AAAAAAAABzE/03lt24VK5H4/s1600/DustDuino+guts.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="358" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-4VxDLuDJfP8/UmCoqUufsLI/AAAAAAAABzE/03lt24VK5H4/s640/DustDuino+guts.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br /><br />1) A WiFi network in your home <br />2) <a href="https://www.sparkfun.com/products/11021">Arduino Uno development board</a><br />3) <a href="http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Arduino/A000064/?qs=Cvel0QnFNSJK4W8LtutgWg%3D%3D&amp;gclid=CLvD8cGAn7oCFeYWMgodYEEAtA">Arduino Wireless Proto Shield</a><br />4) <a href="http://www.seeedstudio.com/depot/grove-dust-sensor-p-1050.html">Shinyei PPD-42 Dust Sensor </a><br />5) <a href="https://www.sparkfun.com/products/10822">Sparkfun Roving Networks RN-XV WiFi module</a><br />6) <a href="http://www.seeedstudio.com/depot/typeb-usb-cable-for-arduino-diecimila-and-freeduino-p-130.html?cPath=98_100">USB type B cable</a> (for programming the Arduino)<br />7) <a href="http://www.seeedstudio.com/depot/wall-adapter-power-supply-9vdc-1a-p-1509.html?cPath=1_4">9V DC power supply</a> (or a 5V USB cell phone charger along with your USB-B cable)<br />8) <a href="https://www.sparkfun.com/products/11367">22AWG solid core hookup wire</a> (M/M jumper wires can be used in a pinch)<br />9) Soldering equipment (soldering iron, solder, and soldering paste)<br />10) Arduino sketch from the <a href="https://github.com/NodeJournalism/DustDuino">DustDuino GitHub repository</a> (<a href="https://github.com/NodeJournalism/DustDuino/archive/master.zip">zipped repo</a> also contains background literature on the PPD-42, mass concentration algorithms, and the DustDuino logo).<br /><br /><h2>Step 1: Program the WiFi module</h2><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-vOlrwmM9lwE/UQ6lUWp4pAI/AAAAAAAAAvQ/4WUGJ2uioMM/s1600/RNXV_PIC.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="358" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-vOlrwmM9lwE/UQ6lUWp4pAI/AAAAAAAAAvQ/4WUGJ2uioMM/s640/RNXV_PIC.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br />For the DustDuino to transmit any data, it needs to be connected to your home WiFi network. <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2013/06/step-by-step-guide-to-programming-rn-xv.html">Consult my post on programming the RN-XV for details</a>.<br /><br />Like the Arduino Uno, which serves as the DustDuino's "brain," the RN-XV will be on constantly. The RN-XV is set up to connect to your home's WiFi network as soon as power is connected, and it will remain connected so long as there is power.<br /><h2>Step 2: Hook up the Shinyei PPD-42 particulate sensor</h2><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-iyoKpH_NNzA/UmCm11WKsHI/AAAAAAAABy0/SAm5evZGfVQ/s1600/PPD42+connector.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="358" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-iyoKpH_NNzA/UmCm11WKsHI/AAAAAAAABy0/SAm5evZGfVQ/s640/PPD42+connector.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br />When you order the Shinyei sensor, it will come packaged with a connector to interface with the <a href="http://www.seeedstudio.com/depot/base-shield-v13-p-1378.html?cPath=132_134">Seeedstudio Grove Shield</a>. Instead of purchasing a whole new shield just to attach a single sensor, I recommend simply sticking either jumper wires, or stripped 22AWG solid core wire into the end of the Grove connector.<br /><br />The black wire on the Grove cable corresponds to ground, so that wire should be connected to GND on the Arduino Wireless Shield. The red wire on the Grove cable will be connected to 5V on the Wireless Shield, while the remaining white wire will be plugged into the digital "8" pin on the Shield.<br /><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-V66NnhE8Y1A/UmCngtjIpCI/AAAAAAAABy8/AtYVdVgDVD8/s1600/PPD42+solder+P2.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="358" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-V66NnhE8Y1A/UmCngtjIpCI/AAAAAAAABy8/AtYVdVgDVD8/s640/PPD42+solder+P2.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br />There's another issue with using the included Grove connector: it doesn't make use of all the sensor's available channels. The included connector will only make use of the Shinyei's P1 channel, which is for counting particles between 1 and 10 microns. But the PPD-42 also has a P2 channel, which counts particles between 2.5 and 10 microns.<br /><br />By measuring both P1 and P2 channels, it's possible for the DustDuino to differentiate between the PM2.5 and PM10, which are the two major ranges of particles recognized by the EPA and similar agencies. The smaller particulates that measure 2.5 microns and under are of special concern, since those have the potential to enter the blood stream and cause the most harm [5].<br /><br />To measure the P2 channel, strip a solid core 22AWG wire and solder the end of the wire to the second pin on the PPD-42. This is the pin located between GND and 5V. It might be a good idea to use a little hot glue to insulate the connection and provide a little strength.<br /><br />Your new P2 channel will be connected to the digital "9" pin on the Wireless Shield. <br /><br /><h2>Step 3: Set up a Xively account </h2><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-eYhwnKz5Le0/UmF-2p8u6-I/AAAAAAAABzw/VNvtQPSwIh0/s1600/xively1.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="400" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-eYhwnKz5Le0/UmF-2p8u6-I/AAAAAAAABzw/VNvtQPSwIh0/s640/xively1.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br />All that data being produced by the DustDuino will have to go somewhere, and it might as well go somewhere you can easily access. Xively is a service that <a href="https://xively.com/whats_xively/">markets itself</a> as a "public cloud specifically for the internet of things," which allows you to view your sensor data from home computer, tablet, or smartphone.<br /><br />That service can get quite expensive, but you can <a href="https://xively.com/signup/">sign up for a free developer account</a>, which can store up to 30 channels of data across five devices (a channel is a single stream of data -- like temperature, or humidity, or PM2.5 or PM10). With a free Xively account, any data older than 30 days will be deleted.<br /><br />Xively can walk you through the process of <a href="https://xively.com/dev/tutorials/xively/">setting up an account</a>, but there are some specific things you'll need to do to make sure it's set up to receive DustDuino data.<br /><br />You will need to create a device with four channels, named:<br /><br />PM10<br />PM10count<br />PM25<br />PM25count<br /><br />PM10count and PM25count channels will store the number of PM10 and PM2.5 particles counted by the Shinyei PPD-42 sensor, while PM10 and PM25 channels will store mass concentration as calculated by the DustDuino code.<br /><br />Record the Feed ID for this device, which you'll need to insert into the Arduino code later. Also save the name of the device, which you'll also need for the Arduino code.<br /><br />The last thing you'll need to do here is to create an API key which will give your DustDuino permission to store data on your Xively account. Every time the DustDuino sends data to Xively, it needs send along this unique key. To make a new API key, or find an existing key, go to "settings," and then click "Master Keys."<br /><br />Copy and paste this API key somewhere easy to find, as you'll need to manually insert it into the Arduino code in our next step.<br /><br /><h2>Step 4: Code the Arduino</h2><br />The Arduino is fairly capable "out of the box," but for more complicated tasks like getting the RN-XV to connect to the Xively server, it's helpful to have blocks of code already written out. Those blocks of code are known as <a href="http://arduino.cc/en/Reference/Libraries">libraries</a>.<br /><br />Fortunately there's only one library you'll need for the DustDuino, and that's the <a href="https://github.com/harlequin-tech/WiFlyHQ">WiFlyHQ library</a>. The Arduino website has instructions on how to <a href="http://arduino.cc/en/Guide/Libraries">install Arduino libraries</a>.<br /><br />After installing the WiFlyHQ library, open up the DustDuino.ino file in the Arduino IDE. Find the <span style="font-family: &quot;Courier New&quot;,Courier,monospace;">#define APIKEY</span> code and replace the hash signs with your API Key.<br /><br />Find the very next line, which begins <span style="font-family: &quot;Courier New&quot;,Courier,monospace;">#define FEEDID</span>, and replace the hash signs with the Feed ID.<br /><br />Finally, in the very next line, which begins <span style="font-family: &quot;Courier New&quot;,Courier,monospace;">#define USERAGENT</span>, replace the hash signs with the device name.<br /><br />Save the sketch, and with the Wireless Shield detached from the Arduino Uno, upload the sketch to the Arduino. After the sketch is uploaded, you may re-connect the Wireless Shield. Make sure the switch on the Wireless Shield is set to "Micro" before connecting your DustDuino to a power source.<br /><br />You have several options for powering your DustDuino. You can purchase a separate "wall wart" style 9-volt DC adapter for the Arduino, or you can run power through the Arduino Uno's USB-B port.<br /><br />If you do decide to supply power through the USB-B port, you may do so with a universal cell charging adapter that has a female USB connector. Most of these chargers supply 5 volts, but just to be sure, make sure to read any text on your cell charger. Another easy way to power the Arduino Uno is to keep it plugged in to your computer's USB port, but you have to keep your computer powered at all times.<br /><br /><h2>Step 5: Keep everything together</h2><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-ePbhNS-BMe4/UmCpWWtqESI/AAAAAAAABzQ/Av7xqDICOV0/s1600/DustDuino+unboxed.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="358" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-ePbhNS-BMe4/UmCpWWtqESI/AAAAAAAABzQ/Av7xqDICOV0/s640/DustDuino+unboxed.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><span id="goog_1639516571"></span><span id="goog_1639516572"></span><br />The Shinyei PPD-42 must be placed upright to work correctly. In other words, it must be placed on a vertical surface, with the connector must be pointing down, and the chrome part of the sensor pointing up.<br /><br />This placement is important to drive air into the sensor. Inside the sensor chamber, at the bottom, is a resistor that heats up when power is connected. With this resistor, the sensor creates a warm updraft of air, which is meant to circulate dust inside the chamber.<br /><br />According to an email from Shinyei customer service, the sensor doesn't need any kind of fan to blow air inside the sensor chamber. But the chamber must be open to the air you wish to sense.<br /><br />The container doesn't have to be elaborate. One solution is to secure the sensor to the side of a cardboard box with a pushpin (the sensor has a convenient hole at the top of its circuit board for this kind of thing). If you have a cork board or other board that can be stuck with pins, you also can mount your sensor on a wall.<br /><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-xWLes9mtr2I/UmCsyJYz7eI/AAAAAAAABzY/FFZlGrbmGnM/s1600/dustduino+proto+2+on+wall.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="640" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-xWLes9mtr2I/UmCsyJYz7eI/AAAAAAAABzY/FFZlGrbmGnM/s640/dustduino+proto+2+on+wall.jpg" width="480" /></a></div><br /><br />At the beginning of this post is a picture of a work in progress: an acrylic cube in which to store the DustDuino. The sides of this cube were cut from an 1/8th inch acrylic sheet using a 50-watt CO2 Epilog laser engraver at the <a href="http://cucfablab.org/">CU Community Fab Lab</a>. The design is not yet perfected, but when finished, the pattern will be made available as a PDF for download.<br /><br />Please note that if you intend to deploy this sensor in your backyard, you will need to make a waterproof housing that still allows the sensor to sample air. You must also ensure the power source to your DIY housing is waterproof, as well. Like the indoor acrylic housing, this is a work in progress.<br /><br /><h2>One last word about this prototype</h2><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-Aav6lLpRvGQ/UmF9eGri4XI/AAAAAAAABzo/STmOFct3W-Y/s1600/dustduino+logo.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="640" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-Aav6lLpRvGQ/UmF9eGri4XI/AAAAAAAABzo/STmOFct3W-Y/s640/dustduino+logo.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br />The DustDuino is a work in progress. I cannot make any guarantees as to whether your particular project will work. Having said that, this device has worked great for me so far. So given my personal success, and the recent WHO and IARC findings about particulate matter being carcinogenic, I felt it was time to release instructions and code into the wild.<br /><br />If you put together a DustDuino have it working correctly, or have any suggestions, feel free to drop me a line at mschroyer@gmail.com.<br /><br />Also, if this device has proven useful for you, please consider donating to MentalMunition.com. Funds will go to develop ready-to-deploy DustDuino devices.<br /><br /><form action="https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr" method="post" target="_top"><input name="cmd" type="hidden" value="_s-xclick" /><input name="hosted_button_id" type="hidden" value="PFZWBG33HFDG8" /><input alt="PayPal - The safer, easier way to pay online!" border="0" name="submit" src="https://www.paypalobjects.com/en_US/i/btn/btn_donateCC_LG.gif" type="image" /><img alt="" border="0" height="1" src="https://www.paypalobjects.com/en_US/i/scr/pixel.gif" width="1" /></form><h2>Sources</h2><br /><a href="http://www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/iarcnews/pdf/pr221_E.pdf">[1]</a> "IARC: Outdoor air pollution a leading environmental cause of cancer deaths," International Agency for Research on Cancer, 17 October 2013.<br /><a href="http://wireless.ece.drexel.edu/research/sd_air_quality.pdf">[2]</a> Uva, M., Falcone, R., McClellan, A., Ostapowicz, E. "Preliminary Screening System for Ambient Air Quality in Southeast Philadelphia," Drexel University, 2009.<br /><a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2013/09/understanding-air-pollution-with-simple.html">[3]</a> Schroyer, M. "Understanding air pollution with a simple dust sensor," MentalMunition.com, 5 September 2013.<br /><a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2013/05/dustduino-plan-to-crowdsource.html">[4]</a> Schroyer, M. "DustDuino: A plan to crowdsource environmental reporting with low-cost dust sensors," 30 May 2013.<br /><a href="http://www.epa.gov/air/urbanair/">[5]</a> "What Are the Six Common Air Pollutants?" Environmental Protection Agency, 20 April 2012.Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-1885592253555032812013-09-23T09:00:00.000-05:002013-09-23T09:00:00.030-05:00Drones, journalism, and the peak of inflated expectations<div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-dYvdnjMULhs/Uj9gcJ9TlhI/AAAAAAAABsg/yzKtCw7eF5U/s1600/hype-cycle-pr%5B1%5D.png" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="400" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-dYvdnjMULhs/Uj9gcJ9TlhI/AAAAAAAABsg/yzKtCw7eF5U/s640/hype-cycle-pr%5B1%5D.png" width="640" /></a></div><br />It's a story that's been repeated time and time again with emergent technology. Researchers publish some new breakthrough, and the press grabs hold of the news release and begins extrapolating stories about how the new tech could revolutionize our lives. Expectations build as ideas bounce within the media echo chamber, pitchmen evangelize audiences at the trendy tech conferences, and venture capitalists make power plays in the market.<br /><br />Everyone wants a piece because the sky is the limit, and the sky is the limit because everyone wants a piece.<br /><br />Products finally hit the market, and eventually, reality sets in. Like the doomsayers who predict apocalypse time and time again, the prophesied miracles fail to materialize. The technology is immature. Deliverables fail to match objectives. Most importantly, the technology was overvalued, and an adjustment takes place.<br /><br />This "hype curve" -- rising expectations, peak interest, and curbed enthusiasm -- doesn't happen to every piece of technology that comes around. But this bubble does happen with surprising regularity. Every year, Gartner, a tech research corporation, produces a report that attempts to identify where various technologies are riding on this bubble.<br /><br />Gartner released its latest report, <a href="http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2575515">"2013 Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies,"</a> last month. In it, the company prognosticates that drones and other unmanned technologies are coming up to that peak. At that point, the unmanned systems sector might be in for some pain.<br /><br /><a name='more'></a>Robotics is a huge sector, because it represents an incredibly diverse family of technologies. As such, the research firm actually splits robotics into two categories: mobile robots and autonomous vehicles. Drones could be classified in either of those, but mobile robots are closer to peaking than autonomous vehicles.<br /><br />So what might cause drones to hit "peak hype"? I have a few ideas.<br /><br />Earlier this month, I wrote for The Center for the Study of the Drone at Bard College about the <a href="http://dronecenter.bard.edu/drone-journalism-revolution/">"Drone Journalism Revolution."</a> That piece focused on the three elements that came together in 2011 to generate the idea of drone journalism: political turmoil, natural and man-made disasters, and the maker movement.<br /><br />Something that didn't make it to the final piece concerned the roadblocks to drone adoption among journalists:<br /><br /><blockquote class="tr_bq"><i>The future is bright for this technology, but drones aren’t totally ready journalism yet. Price of entry is no longer an issue, yet drones are still not “smart” enough to be completely user-friendly. Most of these aircraft cannot fly without some kind of human assistance, and therefore require some kind of specialized training.<br /><br />Journalists already are burdened with a number of important tasks: cultivating sources, conducting research, attending meetings, filing information requests, writing and re-writing and then writing some more. On top of that, multimedia production, data analysis, coding, web design and online social networking are increasingly becoming <a href="http://towcenter.org/research/post-industrial-journalism/introduction/">requisite skills for journalists in the digital economy</a>. Simultaneously, the collapse of print and the rise of click-based remuneration mean journalists have to <a href="http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?rep=rep1&amp;type=pdf&amp;doi=10.1.1.124.2024">produce more content with fewer resources</a>.</i> </blockquote><blockquote class="tr_bq"><i>Quite simply, journalists don’t have the time to become pilots. The fact that major news organizations in Australia <a href="http://www.dronejournalism.org/news/2013/8/the-state-of-drone-regulation-and-journalism-in-australia-with-mark-corcoran">contract drone operators instead of developing them internally</a> indicates there are hurdles remaining for widespread adoption.</i><br /></blockquote>I've talked to more than one person from a newsroom who said that their organization purchased a drone, only to find it difficult to control. I've heard stories of people smashing many thousands of dollars of equipment, sometimes spectacularly, sometimes in public. <a href="http://www.suasnews.com/2013/09/25136/multirotor-crashes-into-crowd-spain/">Some of these failures have injured people.</a><br /><br /><a href="http://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/robotics/aerial-robots/disposable-drones-will-collect-data-by-surfing-along-with-hurricanes">Disposable drones</a> could greatly reduce the financial loss incurred from a crash, but that wouldn't solve the safety issue. And as much as contract drone operators would benefit from a credential structure to limit competition and keep the price for services high, that barrier to entry could stifle innovation in drone journalism.<br /><br />It's like the famous quote from Ken Olsen, the founder of Digital Equipment Corporation, "There is no reason for any individual for anyone to have a computer in his home." Everyone <i>did</i> want a computer at home, they just didn't want <i>mainframe computers</i>, which are large, expensive, and complicated machines that <a href="http://www.snopes.com/quotes/kenolsen.asp">Olsen believed would control "all aspects of our lives."</a><br /><br />One might argue that we already have digital devices that control much of our lives, but the point is that drones need to experience a personalization and an evolution in ease of use before any "drone boom" is to happen.<br /><br />There is an immediate need for systems that can better adapt to changing environments and recover from human error. In other words, drones need true "sense and avoid." As 3DRobotics CEO Chris Anderson has said, the future may be <i>personal drones</i> drones that fly themselves.<br /><br />There are other barriers which, if not addressed, could precipitate the peak of inflated expectations. Many of these potential barriers have little to do with drone journalism, except that shortfalls in these areas could slow investment and drone development in general.<br /><br /><ol><li><i>Can't compete with economy of scale.</i><br /><br />The largest single market for drones is agriculture, which means that AG sector demand (or lack thereof) could drive (or hamper) drone development elsewhere. One-third of the rice fields in Japan already are tended to by robotic helicopters. Research here in the United States has confirmed that drones can be cost-effective because they use less chemicals, but only with specialty crops and crops that grow on uneven terrain. For large-scale, monoculture crops, the economy of scale given by manned aircraft will reign for the foreseeable future.<br /><i><br /></i></li><li><i>The data doesn't pan out.</i><br /><br />For data collection, it's a similar story. Drones beat satellites in resolution and turn-around time, but it's still cheaper to hire a Cessna than to contract a Predator. And despite all the buzz about drones making data-driven precision AG possible, I don't think we've seen a proper cost-benefit analysis that confirms a healthy ROI. That being said, there is hope for an aerial data market that caters to niche services.<br /><i><br /></i></li><li><i>Regulations put the kibosh on development.</i><br /><br />It's not just about the FAA and UAS integration. I'm talking about <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Traffic_in_Arms_Regulations">ITAR</a>. I'm talking about <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ag-Gag">AG-gag</a>. I'm talking about states that fine <a href="http://www.dronejournalism.org/news/2013/9/doing-drone-journalism-in-texas-you-could-be-fined-10000-or-more">$10,000 or more for aerial photos of private property.</a> I'm talking about communities that give bounties for shooting down drones. Accidents that hurt bystanders, and the lawsuits to come out of those accidents. At some point, investors will throw up their hands, and the bubble will pop.</li></ol><br />This may sound very much like gloom-and-doom, but these are all temporary problems. They can be solved by allowing adequate time for the technology to mature.<br /><br />That's also Gartner's opinion. Although it seems drones are approaching peak expectations, they may only be 5 to 10 years from reaching the "plateau of enlightenment."<br /><br />That may seem like an eternity for those who have gone "all in," and many may not make it out to the other side, but the patient eventually will be rewarded. That includes patient drone journalists.Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-89208902455862179632013-09-05T01:00:00.000-05:002013-09-05T12:48:39.427-05:00Understanding air pollution with a simple dust sensor<div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-SJMDpzvEJsc/UbCtvcGh9aI/AAAAAAAABLw/WIYd3SH86CA/s1600/Dustduino.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="424" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-SJMDpzvEJsc/UbCtvcGh9aI/AAAAAAAABLw/WIYd3SH86CA/s640/Dustduino.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br />Outdoor air pollution, in the most extreme cases, can be immediately identified even without any special training. It casts a haze over cities, collects on streets and buildings, and provides <a href="http://www.sacbee.com/2013/08/22/5673527/yellowstone-smoke-fuels-air-quality.html">dramatic fodder for the news.</a> Even when the air pollution isn't actually visible, we can smell when something isn't quite right.<br /><br />I previously wrote about <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2013/08/iepa-is-silent-on-request-for-data.html">how difficult it can be to obtain basic environmental data</a>, and how <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2013/07/michigan-also-faces-cutbacks-in-air.html">government budget cuts are threatening air monitoring networks in several states</a>. It now appears that other countries are making hard decisions about which monitors to keep, and which monitors to shut down. The <i>Guardian</i> reported recently that up to 600 air quality monitors, including monitors for <a href="http://www.epa.gov/airquality/nitrogenoxides/health.html">nitrogen dioxide</a> and <a href="http://www.epa.gov/ncer/science/pm/">particulate matter</a> (PM), <a href="http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/aug/22/air-pollution-monitoring-stations-shut">could be shut down across the United Kingdom.</a><br /><br />Yet for all the attention the media pays to outdoor pollution, people spend only about 1 to 2 hours outdoors (and that's only in the pleasant summer months) according to one <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21128911">University of Newcastle study.</a> According to the EPA, <a href="http://www.epa.gov/region1/communities/indoorair.html">we spend about 90 percent of our time indoors</a>. We spend the vast majority of our time indoors, so it makes sense monitor pollution in the home.<br /><br />Indoor Air Pollution (IAP) is an especially big problem in developing countries, where 60 to 90 percent of households still rely on coal and wood for heat and food preparation. About 36 percent of acute lower respiratory infections and about 22 percent of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the developing world are caused by IAP <a href="https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/9723/209460BRI0ENGL10Box345620B01PUBLIC1.pdf?sequence=1">(pdf)</a>. <a href="http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10552-012-0130-8">In one study of women in China,</a> researchers found that a 10&nbsp;μg/m<sup class="a-plus-plus">3</sup> (microgram per cubic meter) increase in PM<sub class="a-plus-plus">1</sub> (ultrafine particles smaller than one micrometer) was associated with 45 percent increased risk of lung cancer.<br /><br />IAP isn't just a concern in developing and BRIC nations, though. Similar problems exist for the rural poor in the US and Canada, where indoor pollution exceeds the World Health Organization air quality guidelines in up to <a href="http://ajplung.physiology.org/content/304/9/L571">80% of homes</a>. As in BRIC nations, these homes rely greatly on burning organic fuels.<br /><br />Air quality at home can be an issue even for homes that don't burn wood or coal. Indoor air pollution can come from "molds, bacteria, viruses, pollen, animal dander and particles from dust mites and cockroaches," according to the <a href="http://www.lung.org/associations/charters/mid-atlantic/air-quality/indoor-air-quality.html">American Lung Association.</a><br /><br />Indoor air pollution ranks among the top five environmental risks to public health, <a href="http://www.epa.gov/region1/communities/indoorair.html">the EPA says</a>. Indoor pollution levels may be two to five, and sometimes 100, times higher than outdoor pollution.<br /><br />All that makes the indoors a great place to put a dust sensor.<br /><br /><a name='more'></a><br /><br /><h2><span style="font-size: x-large;">More about the sensor</span></h2><br />The <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2013/05/dustduino-plan-to-crowdsource.html">DustDuino</a> is a project I first announced on this website in May. Its goal is to provide a cheap means for citizens to crowd-source accurate environmental data. The DustDuino is not actually a sensor, but rather is a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensor_node"><i>sensor node</i></a>, which is a device that gathers, processes, and sends sensor data.<br /><br />The first version of DustDuino uses the <a href="https://www.sparkfun.com/products/9689">Sharp GP2Y1010</a> infrared LED dust sensor to obtain particulate matter (PM) readings. It's a fairly handy bit of electronics for the price, considering its output is easily converted into EPA's standard unit of measurement for particulate matter (μg/m<sup>3 </sup>or micrograms per cubic meter) and can generate 100 dust readings every second.<br /><br />But most importantly, it can theoretically sense changes in dust as small as 1μg/m<sup>3</sup> with the Arduino Uno's ATmega 328P microcontroller. For reference, the maximum <a href="http://www.epa.gov/air/criteria.html">National Ambient Air Quality</a> standard for PM10 pollution (coarse particulate matter 10 micrometers in diameter and smaller) is 150 μg/m<sup>3 </sup>, averaged over a 24-hour period.<br /><br />It's important to note this sensor, like any cheap sensor, has its limits. Sharp notes in <a href="https://www.sparkfun.com/datasheets/Sensors/gp2y1010au_e.pdf">documentation </a>that the sensor should not "be used for or in connection with equipment that requires an extremely high level of reliability and safety," such as nuclear power control applications, or in medical or life support systems. <a href="http://www.teco.edu/~budde/publications/inss2012_budde.pdf">A study</a> at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology noted that these sensor tended to not be calibrated very well from the manufacturer, with a maximum deviation between sensors almost reaching 100 μg/m<sup>3 </sup>.<br /><br />In tests, the GP2y101 tended to be especially <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noise">noisy</a>, but averaging the readings over any time period longer than five minutes yielded meaningful measurements. Yet researchers concluded the device was well-suited for "Participatory Sensing applications, such as creating maps pointing out pollution hot spots or the erection of inexpensive measurement grids, as well as personal appliances, e.g. exposure logs or warning systems."<br /><br />That's exactly what the DustDuino is intended for.<br /><br /><h2><span style="font-size: x-large;">First 24-hour trials of the dust sensor</span></h2><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-38VaqjUVksc/UhpekZSnPiI/AAAAAAAABp8/029uleNcQ3I/s1600/DustDuinoProtoTest.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="250" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-38VaqjUVksc/UhpekZSnPiI/AAAAAAAABp8/029uleNcQ3I/s640/DustDuinoProtoTest.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br />Over the course of three days, the dust sensor node was deployed in three separate locations: in the living room (5/16), in the basement (5/21), and in the back yard (6/4). Every minute, the node would take a reading from the sensor, interpret the reading in terms of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_concentration_%28chemistry%29">mass concentration</a>, and send that data via a home WiFi network to a <a href="https://xively.com/feeds/499600824">Xively</a> server.<br /><br />After all the data was posted, I queried the Xively server to send back the data in CSV format (Comma Separated Value). I placed the CSV data into Microsoft Excel, which I used to graph and compare the data. Above is a graph which compares sensor readings from all three locations.<br /><br /><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-oeGhl8vp_2E/UhpmZFXNyrI/AAAAAAAABqY/fp7ngF_wT6Q/s1600/DustDuinoProtoFindings.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="250" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-oeGhl8vp_2E/UhpmZFXNyrI/AAAAAAAABqY/fp7ngF_wT6Q/s640/DustDuinoProtoFindings.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br />Three things stand out in the particulate matter data (circled in the graph above):<br /><ol><li><i>Living room dust levels jumped first thing in the morning. </i>The blip in the living room data occurred between 14:00 and 15:00 UTC, which translates to 9 am and 10 am CST. On this, a Saturday, that corresponded to the time I woke up and began making breakfast (a delicious breakfast of bacon). Cooking is associated with an increase in airborne particulates in this household, which is <a href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231096002154">consistent with the literature</a> on indoor pollution. Also note blips at 11:45 am and 5:41 pm; both times when food is prepared in this household.<br /></li><li><i>Outdoor dust levels rise in the morning, and peak in the afternoon. </i>This is generally <a href="http://www.berkeleycitizen.org/housing/housing14.htm">consistent </a>with other <a href="http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es050462i">research</a> that monitored outdoor particulate matter over the course of a day. PM levels in the environment increase as human activity increases during the day. However one possible exception to this rule <a href="http://www.ge.infn.it/~prati/Fisica%20Nucleare%20Applicata/articoli/valli,%20vecchi.pdf">occurs during the winter</a>, when cold temperatures lead to an increase in the burning of fossil and organic fuels for heat.<br /><br /> </li><li><i>Basement levels seemed to increase slowly over the day.</i> There apparently aren't many studies that compare pollution between multiple floors of a house. One study did find that "one person walking in the basement resulted in a much higher human exposure but a lower source strength than one person walking on the first floor." <a href="http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es0263893">(Ferro, Kopperud, &amp; Hildemann, 2004)</a> However this study took place in a finished basement, which had a much smaller "mixing volume" than did the first floor, which allowed "concentrations to build up." This isn't exactly the situation in this house, as basement is approximately the same area as the first floor, is unfinished (concrete floor), and has no walls.<br /><br />What we do know is that things like radon gas can collect in basements over time <a href="http://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov/weekly/3Page11.pdf">(pdf)</a>. <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15742712">We also know from research</a> (and personal experience) that wet basements do a very good job at growing mold, which contributes to <a href="http://www.airinfonow.org/html/ed_particulate.html">PM10 pollution</a>. This basement can be particularly troublesome when it comes to water infiltration, and the humidity can exceed 50% at times. Unfortunately I did not record the actual humidity of the basement at the time, nor was the sensor able to differentiate between mold and other particulate matter, so I could not determine the culprit. Yet I'm inclined to believe this slow upward trend in basement PM could be linked to an increase in mold growth.<br /> </li></ol><h2>Comparing indoor and outdoor air quality</h2><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-XArVkhKgjqg/UhpkS__o0WI/AAAAAAAABqM/wTH4LEgoOl0/s1600/PollutionComparison.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-XArVkhKgjqg/UhpkS__o0WI/AAAAAAAABqM/wTH4LEgoOl0/s1600/PollutionComparison.jpg" /></a></div><br />So each location seemed to exhibit a unique pattern of particulate matter concentration over time, but what can we say about air quality in general? Was the air better or worse inside, in terms of particulate matter?<br /><br />Above is a chart called a "high-low-close" chart, or a "stock" chart. As its name suggests, it's used to compare how high or how low stocks may trade in the market. It also can be used to illustrate scientific data, which is exactly what this one is doing.<br /><br />The three bold, vertical lines represent the three locations where the dust sensor was placed. The high point of each line (which terminates in a diamond shape) corresponds to the maximum dust concentration that the sensor registered for any given location. Conversely, the low point of each line represents the lowest concentration of particulate matter that was measured for that location. You can probably guess that the red triangle corresponds to the average reading for any one location.<br /><br />What can we interpret from the stock chart of the dust readings?<br /><ol><li><i>The basement had the smallest range of dust readings, but the highest average over 24 hours.</i> Human activity kicks up dust, and there was limited human activity in the basement for this period. Having said that, this is an enclosed, damp environment that is conducive to mold growth, which likely is the reason for the high average.<br /></li><li><i>The living room had the highest peaks of any tested area.</i> Again, human activity kicks up particulates, which the dust sensor reads as short spikes of high dust concentration.<br /></li><li><i>The back yard had the lowest average dust readings over 24 hours.</i> Lo and behold, over a 24 hour period, the air outside had fewer airborne particulates on average. This is consistent with the research above that shows homes can have higher PM levels than the outdoors.</li></ol><h2>Comparing readings to air quality standards </h2><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-oEg77yoAgDE/Uii7kvpVKTI/AAAAAAAABqs/-bcmEJIrZbA/s1600/dust+standards+comparison.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-oEg77yoAgDE/Uii7kvpVKTI/AAAAAAAABqs/-bcmEJIrZbA/s1600/dust+standards+comparison.jpg" /></a></div><br />While it's nice to know whether you're experiencing higher-than-average dust levels at home or in the back yard, the data doesn't become that useful in the broad scheme of things until it's actually compared to air quality standards, and accurate measurements from elsewhere. After all, what does it mean to have elevated PM10 levels? Or low PM10 levels?<br /><br />I've done some research and collected air quality standards from the United States and abroad, and also found some real-world measurements from EPA PM10 monitors. I've collected those in the above table, and included my own data samples for reference.<br /><br />Interestingly, OSHA has very high limits on indoor air quality for general dust (more than 33 times the federal limit for outdoor air quality). An aforementioned study in China found indoor particulate matter concentrations that exceeded 1.5 times the American outdoor limit.<br /><br />The Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) hasn't published an annual air quality report on its website since 2011, so I used that report to find the single highest 24-hour period sampled in the state. It turns out there are only four PM10 monitors in the state (three in Cook county, and one in Madison county), and one of those monitors is set to be discontinued according to the 2014 Ambient Air Monitoring Network Plan.<br /><br />The EPA has an <a href="http://airnow.gov/index.cfm?action=resources.conc_aqi_calc">online Air Quality Index calculator</a> to help citizens find out what it kind of air pollution it takes to turn "good" air into "moderate" or "unhealthy" air. As it turns out, at 55 micrograms per cubic meter, the AQI changes from "good" to "moderate."<br /><br />The European Union has much more strict standards for air quality. The 24-hour limit for PM10 pollution is 50 μg/m3, which is three times the American limit.<br /><br />The measurements taken by the Sharp sensor, if accurate, show the outdoor and indoor air quality is much better than all of these benchmarks.<br /><h2>Summary: It's "good enough"</h2>We can't really be sure whether the tiny, inexpensive Sharp dust sensor took <i>accurate</i> readings of particulate matter concentrations in the environment. That would require calibration with equipment costing several times more than this humble infrared device. But from laboratory tests and this simple study, we can say this device produces fairly <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accuracy_and_precision"><i>precise</i></a> readings which are consistent with the research and literature on air quality in the home and outdoors. It can measure trends in air quality, both short-term and long term, and is suitable for crowd-source efforts to identify point-source pollution in the home or outdoors.<br /><br />If I had to pick on one shortcoming of the dust sensor, it wouldn't actually be its accuracy. If the device is precise, accuracy likely can be dialed-in with the correct testing equipment and procedures. Rather, its biggest drawback is an inability to determine exactly what kind of particulate matter is wafting in the air.<br /><br />Is the dust PM2.5, or PM10? Or particulates greater than 10 micrometers? The answer matters, because the smaller the dust particles are, the greater risk they pose to health. It also matters because to compare this data with any of the air quality standards or air quality research, we must be able to determine the particle size. We don't know the range of particle sizes from this sensor, because Sharp has not provided that information.<br /><br />For a $10 sensor, the Sharp GP2Y1010 is "good enough" for many applications. People wanting to compare the air quality of their homes or outdoor spaces can do so easily and cheaply with this sensor. This sensor also could be calibrated to mitigate some of the accuracy issues.<br /><br />However, there may be other sensors on the market at about the same price point, that use similar methods to measure airborne particulate matter, that might provide better accuracy and size discrimination of airborne particles. I'm currently testing one such sensor, and will have results in time.Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-45946807782280236242013-08-20T09:30:00.000-05:002013-08-20T09:30:01.161-05:00IEPA is silent on request for data, emails surrounding large tire fire<div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-6pzh8UCH424/UexIcA2FQSI/AAAAAAAABT4/6iIXwsB-yFg/s1600/9086734803_9c751f9cd2_b.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="426" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-6pzh8UCH424/UexIcA2FQSI/AAAAAAAABT4/6iIXwsB-yFg/s640/9086734803_9c751f9cd2_b.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br />When a supply of one million tires caught fire in Hoopeston, IL, there were no environmental monitors to track pollution in the community. <br /><br />IEPA responded to the event along with firefighters, and has been keeping tabs on pollution ever since. With the fire extinguished, IEPA's primary concern has been shifted to the<a href="http://www.news-gazette.com/news/local/2013-07-31/state-monitoring-cleanup-site-fire-hoopeston.html"> tire dust kicked up during cleanup.</a><br /><br />From university research, we know an uncontrolled tire burn releases cancer-causing chemicals and mutagens <a href="http://www.epa.gov/ttn/catc/dir1/tire_eng.pdf">(pdf)</a>. But it's been 61 days since the fire began, and the public is still in the dark on pollution figures from this massive fire.<br /><br /><a name='more'></a>I attempted to contact IEPA spokesman Andrew Mason for this information, and received no response. I also submitted an electronic FOIA (Freedom Of Information Act) <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2013/07/hot-spots-linger-during-hoopeston-tire.html">request for emails and environmental data concerning the Hoopeston tire fire. </a><br /><br />The IEPA <i>was required under FOIA law</i> to promptly <i>"either comply with or deny a request for public records within 5 business days."</i> And, if it can't produce the documents under that deadline, it must notify the person requesting the documents.<br /><br />The IEPA did neither of those things.<br /><br />According to the law, non-response after five days is considered a denial of the request. I've requested more information for this denial from IEPA's FOIA officer, Tom Reuter, but got no reply. I also emailed IEPA's general FOIA address for more information, and also got no reply.<br /><br />Under FOIA law, IEPA has to disclose this information so long as it does not constitute an unwarranted invasion of privacy, unless the "subject's right to privacy outweighs any legitimate public interest in obtaining the information." Disclosing the public duties of pubic employees does not count as an invasion of privacy.<br /><br />Additionally, state agencies are exempt from complying with a FOIA request if that request would compromise an ongoing criminal investigation. Also exempted are "preliminary drafts, notes, recommendations, memoranda and other records in which opinions are expressed, or policies or actions are formulated."<br /><br />As a second-to-last resort, I've requested a review by the <a href="http://foia.ilattorneygeneral.net/">Illinois Attorney General's Public Access Counselor</a>, who has the authority to resolve FOIA and OMA (Open Meetings Act) disputes.<br /><br />The only other alternative is to sue the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency for the environmental data and emails. A court could fine the state agency between $2,500 and $5,000, if it finds the agency willfully and intentionally failed to comply with FOIA.<br /><br />I'm hoping it won't come to that. For good measure, over the weekend I sent another FOIA request for just the environmental data. The deadline for that request is Friday.<br /><br />It shouldn't be this hard to learn whether or not your community was doused in carcinogenic chemicals, or to obtain that data from your government. This reinforces my original argument <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2013/07/a-massive-toxic-tire-fire-and-how.html">for community-based sensor journalism</a>, or participatory sensing, which would could give citizens up-to-minute data for relatively low cost. I'll have more updates on my effort to create low-cost dust and particulate sensors later in the week.<br /><br />One of the key things I want to point out here is that the FOIA process <i>is open to everyone</i>. You don't have to be a journalist to request information from the government. You just have to be willing to sit down and write out the request. You don't even have to give your name in the request.<br /><br />More information about how to request information from your government is available from the PAC's website <a href="http://foia.ilattorneygeneral.net/pdf/FAQ_FOIA_Public.pdf">(pdf)</a>.Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-24222314695232671612013-08-16T10:00:00.000-05:002013-08-16T10:31:27.255-05:00Even with a ton of drone regulations, there was a ton of innovation at the SUSB Expo<table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-BCQZzWKxqiE/Ugp2p1RbcXI/AAAAAAAABlA/UzFP8fbnRkE/s1600/MLB+Company+Super+Bat.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="358" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-BCQZzWKxqiE/Ugp2p1RbcXI/AAAAAAAABlA/UzFP8fbnRkE/s640/MLB+Company+Super+Bat.jpg" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">An MLB Company representative shows the company's Super BAT's camera gimbal system to an audience member during the SUSB Expo, in San Francisco, CA.</td></tr></tbody></table><br />It's not very often you get the chance to watch the birth of a multi-billion dollar industry firsthand. But if we are to believe the Association for Unmanned Vehicles and Systems International (AUVSI) economic report, which estimates the unmanned aviation industry <a href="http://www.auvsi.org/AUVSI/Resources/EconomicReport">should reach $82 billion by 2025</a>, that's exactly what happened at the first-ever small business expo for unmanned aircraft, the <a href="http://susbexpo.com/">SUSB Expo</a>, in San Francisco.<br /><br />"It's like being in Steve Job's garage," said Agriflight's Bruce Parks, <a href="http://robohub.org/susbexpo-the-first-unmanned-systems-business-conference/">as reported by <i>Robohub</i>'s Andra Keay.</a><br /><br /><a name='more'></a><br /><br />Certainly there are similarities between the evolution of personal computers, which were initially developed by hobbyists and computer clubs, to small unmanned aircraft, which are being developed by "Makers" and shared in online open-source communities. But Jobs and Steve Wozniak never had to struggle against a public that was so concerned about privacy and safety, and so misinformed about the technology.<br /><br />It certainly took the industry off-guard, as AUVSI Executive Vice President Gretchen West told the expo.<br /><br /><blockquote class="twitter-tweet">.<a href="https://twitter.com/AUVSI">@AUVSI</a> Exec VP West: "We want to see safety take over the privacy issue. We weren't expecting it to be as big as it was." <a href="https://twitter.com/search?q=%23susbexpo&amp;src=hash">#susbexpo</a><br />— SUSB EXPO (@sUASNewsExpo) <a href="https://twitter.com/sUASNewsExpo/statuses/360449792104603649">July 25, 2013</a></blockquote><br />The crowd was all too familiar with the restrictive legislation to come out of privacy fears in Texas, Oregon, New Hampshire, and elsewhere. Wilson was one of the 23 people to speak over the two days of the conference, July 25 and 26, at the Golden Gate Club on the San Francisco Presidio. She was one of two women to speak, and one of three people who talked about how public perception was affecting unmanned aircraft adoption.<br /><br />Chad Partridge,&nbsp; VP of operations at <a href="http://www.2d3.com/">2D3 Sensing</a>, compared the problems facing the nascent small unmanned systems industry more similarly to problems the automobile industry faced when it first started. Before cars came along, streets were regarded as a public space where children could play without regard to safety. When automobiles were first adopted, safety concerns clashed with economic reality.<br /><br /><blockquote class="twitter-tweet">"Is this unprecedented? Not at all." - Partridge <a href="https://twitter.com/search?q=%23susbexpo&amp;src=hash">#susbexpo</a><br />— SUSB EXPO (@sUASNewsExpo) <a href="https://twitter.com/sUASNewsExpo/statuses/360507197031063554">July 25, 2013</a></blockquote><script async="" charset="utf-8" src="//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js"></script> I was the other presenter who spoke about public perception, and how this growing cottage industry might be able to change it. Part of the answer is simple public outreach, which can educate the public on unmanned technology while still providing a platform where legitimate privacy concerns can be addressed.<br /><br />Some of this can be accomplished via STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) education outreach with robots and robotic aircraft, which is part of the work I do for the National Science Foundation grant <a href="http://www.enlist.illinois.edu/">EnLiST</a>, at the University of Illinois. It's well-known that we have a leaky "STEM pipeline," where students fall through the cracks in P-16 STEM education, such that only a small fraction go on to earn college STEM degrees.<br /><br />Of more than 4 million 9th graders in 2001, only 167,000 were expected to finish with a STEM degree by 2011, according to the <a href="http://nces.ed.gov/Programs/digest/">NCES Digest of Education Statistics</a>. And according to the Presidents Council of Advisors on Science And Technology (<a href="http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ostp/pcast">PCAST</a>), the United States needs 1 million more STEM grads over the next decade to maintain its status as an international leader in science and technology.<br /><br />In solving the STEM pipeline with drones education outreach, you also end up with a group of students who are capable of making informed policy decisions concerning unmanned technologies. They're also capable of informing others about drones (especially their parents).<br /><br />The DronesForGood.com consultancy looks for transdiciplinary research opportunities where drones can provide cost-effective data collection. But another goal of this research consultancy is to provide public outreach. To this end, we recently produced the public <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2013/07/uavs-pros-cons-Toronto.html">UAVs Pros Cons</a> symposium at Ryerson University in Toronto, Canada, where citizens and experts could discuss issues and network with other experts in STEM fields and electronic privacy and surveillance.<br /><br />In both talks, I used my handy pie-chart, which breaks down the projected economic impact of unmanned aircraft by 2015 (pending commercial use regulations, of course).<br /><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-tlFd9rkb9kY/UgqTGAU18yI/AAAAAAAABlM/HdxbJGqaVj8/s1600/schroyer+drones+economic+impact+slide.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="480" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-tlFd9rkb9kY/UgqTGAU18yI/AAAAAAAABlM/HdxbJGqaVj8/s640/schroyer+drones+economic+impact+slide.jpg" width="640" /></a></div>This is a useful chart, because it accurately represents how drones will be used commercially. The single biggest domestic market for unmanned aircraft is likely to be agriculture, either spraying crops, monitoring crops, or both.<br /><br />Because the greatest potential near-term moneymaker is reducing inputs and increasing outputs for farms, that's where most drones are likely to appear. And that's where many of SUSB Expo participants seemed to have placed their eggs.<br /><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-SUmSpW2cxbg/UgqaUgromwI/AAAAAAAABlY/KxXpfMfczC4/s1600/Chris+Anderson+3D+Robotics+(4).jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="470" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-SUmSpW2cxbg/UgqaUgromwI/AAAAAAAABlY/KxXpfMfczC4/s640/Chris+Anderson+3D+Robotics+(4).jpg" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Chris Anderson, explained 3D Robotics' strategy for developing drones for agriculture.</td></tr></tbody></table><br /><blockquote class="twitter-tweet">.<a href="https://twitter.com/chr1sa">@chr1sa</a> "If people don't think Predator, they think farm equipment, that would be awesome." <a href="https://twitter.com/search?q=%23susbexpo&amp;src=hash">#susbexpo</a><br />— SUSB EXPO (@sUASNewsExpo) <a href="https://twitter.com/sUASNewsExpo/statuses/360512472559521794">July 25, 2013</a></blockquote><br />Chris Anderson, CEO of 3D Robotics, is very familiar with the hobbyist and recreational side of unmanned aircraft, having founded the open-source UAV community DIYDrones.com. His company caters to, and also relies on, that community of open-source software and hardware developers of unmanned systems. 3D Robotics is now pivoting ever so slightly to develop agricultural applications for these devices.<br /><br />Part of the attraction to agriculture, naturally, is the huge market potential. But Anderson also mentioned another motivation: when you're flying over private land, far away from other people, the regulatory Gods might perhaps give you more latitude to operate. <br /><br /><blockquote class="twitter-tweet">.<a href="https://twitter.com/chr1sa">@chr1sa</a> Farming is a big data problem without the big data. Satellites are geting cheaper, but are limited. <a href="https://twitter.com/search?q=%23susbexpo&amp;src=hash">#susbexpo</a><br />— SUSB EXPO (@sUASNewsExpo) <a href="https://twitter.com/sUASNewsExpo/statuses/360512079393849345">July 25, 2013</a></blockquote><script async="" charset="utf-8" src="//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js"></script> Agriflight's Parks displayed an unmanned aircraft and ground control station, all of which was designed around the specific purpose of providing agriculture intelligence.<br /><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-9B1ddp1cpf0/UgqtQa2wf-I/AAAAAAAABlk/AQlCr7NJa5M/s1600/Agriflight+(2).jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="358" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-9B1ddp1cpf0/UgqtQa2wf-I/AAAAAAAABlk/AQlCr7NJa5M/s640/Agriflight+(2).jpg" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">An Agriflight representative demonstrates the company's custom ground control station (GCS).</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-PvfJRF6Up2I/UgqttAhWEiI/AAAAAAAABls/gQNaXVRG87M/s1600/Agriflight+(3).jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="358" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-PvfJRF6Up2I/UgqttAhWEiI/AAAAAAAABls/gQNaXVRG87M/s640/Agriflight+(3).jpg" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Agriflight's current unmanned aircraft.</td></tr></tbody></table>Ken Giles, a U.C. Berkley professor of agricultural engineering, presented his research on the real-world benefits of unmanned aircraft like the Yamaha R-Max, which has seen commercial success as a mechanism to distribute pesticides in Japan. Approximately a third of the rice fields in Japan currently are serviced by this remote-controlled (but not autonomous) helicopter.<br /><br />Giles, like many others in this new industry, found incredible difficulty working within the current regulatory structure, even to accomplish very simple tasks. The Yamaha R-Max was designed to distribute chemical pesticides, but current FAA regulations prohibit unmanned aircraft from dropping most anything, even with a Certificate of Authorization (COA).<br /><br /><blockquote class="twitter-tweet">"It's tremendously exciting. If we can spray between the rows, it opens up whole new opportunities for better chemical use." <a href="https://twitter.com/search?q=%23susbexpo&amp;src=hash">#susbexpo</a><br />— SUSB EXPO (@sUASNewsExpo) <a href="https://twitter.com/sUASNewsExpo/statuses/360547751383142400">July 25, 2013</a></blockquote><script async="" charset="utf-8" src="//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js"></script> <br />After much negotiation, FAA representatives finally allowed the U.C. Berkley crew to drop a liquid from the helicopter. But only if that liquid was water, and only after Giles' research team had done the math to find out what kind of force that water would have when it impacted an object or person (turned out to be similar to a light rain shower).<br /><br />Within the limited scope of those permissions, Giles couldn't directly study the efficacy of pesticide dispersal via the low-altitude helicopter. Instead his team had to attach color-changing paper to the crops.<br /><br />Giles had some interesting findings despite these restrictions. For large-scale farms like the ubiquitous corn and soy fields of the Midwest, manned, turbine-powered aircraft have the cost advantage for the foreseeable future. Yet the remote-controlled helicopter was much more efficient for distributing chemicals over small, specialty crops than any existing alternative. That was especially the case with crops that need to be planted on uneven terrain. <br /><br />This was the other strong, unifying message of the conference: innovation in the face of strict regulations.<br /><br />It's not just that commercial unmanned aviation is essentially outlawed. There's other U.S. regulations, such as the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (<a href="http://pmddtc.state.gov/regulations_laws/itar_official.html">ITAR</a>), that can stifle innovation at home. ITAR works against small unmanned systems developers not only because it limits what you can export, but it makes developers fundamentally shift their business strategy to accommodate the regulations.<br /><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-zr-qFbJsNgo/UgwbKfhLPjI/AAAAAAAABl8/1_LmPKwFlA8/s1600/Tad+McGeer+Aerovel+(2).jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="358" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-zr-qFbJsNgo/UgwbKfhLPjI/AAAAAAAABl8/1_LmPKwFlA8/s640/Tad+McGeer+Aerovel+(2).jpg" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Aerovel President Tad McGeer</td></tr></tbody></table><br />In the words of Tad McGeer, a founding member of Insitu Group, ITAR "forces you to become an arms dealer."<br /><br />The Insitu Group is credited with making one of the most successful unmanned aircraft of all-time: the <a href="http://www.insitu.com/systems/scaneagle">Scaneagle</a>. This UA has seen the most use above battlefields, but it was originally designed to help fishermen spot Bluefin tuna in the Atlantic. <br /><br /><blockquote class="twitter-tweet">"Bureaucrat A could say you are OK, bureaucrat B could send you to Guantanamo" - difficulties developing UAS for applications in the US<br />— SUSB EXPO (@sUASNewsExpo) <a href="https://twitter.com/sUASNewsExpo/statuses/360504814607663104">July 25, 2013</a></blockquote><br />McGeer is now the president of <a href="http://www.aerovelco.com/index.html">Aerovel</a>, a company he founded in 2006. For the SUSB Expo, McGeer showed demo video of his company's flagship aircraft, the VTOL (Vertical Take Off and Landing) <a href="http://www.aerovelco.com/Flexrotor.html">Flexrotor</a>. The aircraft features a main wing and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V-tail">v-tail</a>, similar to other fixed-wing aircraft.<br /><br />Yet the tail on the flexrotor folds into the body, enabling the aircraft to take off vertically like a rocket. When it's time to land, the aircraft pitches up until it stalls, the tail folds into the body, and the propeller provides thrust to allow the Flexrotor to float back to the ground in a vertical position.<br /><br /><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"></div><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="360" src="//www.youtube.com/embed/bK-s_tqSlZk" width="640"></iframe> <br /><br />Aerovel designed the Flexrotor as a solution for "weather monitoring, geological survey, and imaging reconnaissance." It's meant to be versatile, but also low-cost, which should give it an advantage in the market.<br /><br />Insitu's Scaneagle costs around $2,000 an hour to operate. At that price, McGeer explained, it's actually cheaper to hire a Cessna, which means manned aircraft may continue to have the advantage in many applications. His hope is that the Flexrotor's price will enable Aerovel to accommodate a variety of niche markets where unmanned aircraft could excel.<br /><br /><blockquote class="twitter-tweet">McGeer: UAS fulfil niches. "Niches are not big enough for behemoths. They're for small guys." <a href="https://twitter.com/search?q=%23susbexpo&amp;src=hash">#susbexpo</a><br />— SUSB EXPO (@sUASNewsExpo) <a href="https://twitter.com/sUASNewsExpo/statuses/360502564057382912">July 25, 2013</a></blockquote><script async="" charset="utf-8" src="//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js"></script> Another great innovation revealed during the SUSB Expo was the world's smallest unmanned aerial LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging). For those unfamiliar with <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lidar">how LiDAR works</a>, essentially lasers are directed at a target, and sensors read the reflected light to determine the distance to that target. It is frequently used to create 3D models of terrain for use in mapping, autonomous vehicle navigation, and in geological and archeological studies.<br /><br />Wolfgang Juchmann, director of sales and marketing for LiDAR systems developer Velodyne, mapped the SUSB Expo conference room using one of their products. Then, he showed a video of the same LiDAR system mounted to a multirotor UAV, which mapped part of Qualcomm Stadium (home, of course, to the San Diego Chargers).<br /><br /><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="360" src="//www.youtube.com/embed/aIxYt7DkK5A" width="640"></iframe> <br /><br />There are some indications that the regulatory situation is improving. <a href="http://susbexpo.com/speakers/ted-wierzbanowski/">Ted Wierzbanowski</a>, a retired USAF colonel and former UAS program manager at AeroVironment (which manufactured the successful <a href="http://www.avinc.com/uas/small_uas/raven/">RQ-11B Raven</a>), briefed the SUSB Expo on some of the latest efforts to draw up UAS rules in the U.S.<br /><br />Wierzbanowski also was the chair of the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) F-38 UAS Standards Committee, which was charged with establishing<a href="http://www.astm.org/COMMIT/F38_FactSheet_2013.pdf"> "minimum safety, performance, and flight proficiency requirements,"</a> among other duties. If the rules proposed by F-38 are adopted, the process to authorize flying a small unmanned aircraft could be as simple as clicking off boxes on an online form. <br /><br /><blockquote class="twitter-tweet">Permits for small UAS likely will be location-based, not carte blanche. But unsure of the future. - Wierzbanowski <a href="https://twitter.com/search?q=%23susbexpo&amp;src=hash">#susbexpo</a><br />— SUSB EXPO (@sUASNewsExpo) <a href="https://twitter.com/sUASNewsExpo/statuses/360536307300179968">July 25, 2013</a></blockquote><script async="" charset="utf-8" src="//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js"></script> <br /><a href="http://www.astm.org/COMMITTEE/F38.htm">ASTM F-38</a> recently submitted a draft of these proposed rules to the FAA, which recommended that UAS flights become regulated based on location and weight. Small unmanned aircraft weighing two kilograms and under could fly over populated areas, while aircraft between two and nine kilograms could fly only over sparsely populated areas. Unmanned aircraft between nine and 25 kilograms would be permitted to fly only over rural areas.<br /><br />From Wierzbanowski's vantage point in the rule-making process, it's not the Federal Aviation Administration that's holding up UAS integration. "In this particular case, it's the bureaucracy" working above the FAA that is concerned about privacy, he said.<br /><br />Even given the political and regulatory atmosphere here in the states, San Francisco proved to be the ideal location for the first ever conference for small business applications of unmanned systems. Of all the states in the Union, California stands to benefit the most from the drone industry ($2.3 billion in economic impact by 2017, according to AUVSI). And out of all the places in California, Silicon Valley has perhaps the greatest concentration of human and venture capital to produce drone innovations.<br /><br />The day after the conference, I made a pilgrimage to the <a href="http://www.computerhistory.org/">Computer History Museum</a>, where I found the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_I">first ever Apple computer.</a> It seemed so very simple -- just an assortment of&nbsp; components on a single circuit board, screwed into a wooden box (Wood! Can you imagine that?). Yet its elegant PCB traces, IC layout, and handcrafted case (which bore the signature "Woz"), hinted ever so slightly at the design ethos that would make Apple iconic.<br /><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-ngkTqh1dTlE/Ug0ms8al_9I/AAAAAAAABn4/lLj6Inw_E8k/s1600/Apple+1+Woz.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="358" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-ngkTqh1dTlE/Ug0ms8al_9I/AAAAAAAABn4/lLj6Inw_E8k/s640/Apple+1+Woz.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br />I took a picture. Then, I stood back, and wondered if I hadn't just seen something as remarkable just a day earlier.<br /><br /><a href="http://susbexpo.com/expo-photos-video/"><i>More photos, and videos of all 23 presenters, are available on the SUSB Expo website.&nbsp;</i></a><br /><br /><i>&nbsp;<table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-8a4jHJ4zKAM/Ug0uVCaihoI/AAAAAAAABoI/etmv65Pp_04/s1600/Octocopter+(1).jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="358" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-8a4jHJ4zKAM/Ug0uVCaihoI/AAAAAAAABoI/etmv65Pp_04/s640/Octocopter+(1).jpg" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">A gimbal-equipped octocopter at the SUSB Expo, hanging off the back of a UAS command truck.</td></tr></tbody></table></i>Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-44140417260767334622013-07-31T14:05:00.002-05:002013-07-31T14:17:34.919-05:00Hot spots linger during Hoopeston tire fire cleanup, FOIA filed<table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-H85F9pGGAkw/UexIhKTI2RI/AAAAAAAABUc/5f7gT6FP0Sw/s1600/9086810559_0a3ab88123_b.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-H85F9pGGAkw/UexIhKTI2RI/AAAAAAAABUc/5f7gT6FP0Sw/s640/9086810559_0a3ab88123_b.jpg" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Firefighters attempt to extinguish the tire fire at J&amp;R Used Tire Service in Hoopeston, Ill., on June 19. Photo by <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/relunrelated/sets/72157634217027143/">Dan Johnson</a>.</td></tr></tbody></table>State environmental officials are continuing to monitor the site where a massive tire fire broke out 43 days ago, citing new concerns about dust during the cleanup process.<br /><br />According to the Champaign News-Gazette, officials from the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) say the site has dried out since firefighters poured hundreds of thousands of gallons of water on the tire fire at J&amp;R Used Tire Service in Hoopeston, Ill. on June 19. This is creating an issue for "tire dust," which can not be kept down with more water.<br /><a name='more'></a><br /><a href="http://www.news-gazette.com/news/local/2013-07-31/state-monitoring-cleanup-site-fire-hoopeston.html">The News-Gazette reports</a> that IEPA is working with experts to bring chemicals to the site to reduce airborne tire dust. Meanwhile, IEPA also has contracted an outside company to operate a mobile water treatment plant to remove chemicals from runoff.<br /><br />Illinois Department of Transporation (IDOT) flew a manned aircraft over the tire site, and with an infrared sensor, revealed 10 different "hot spots" within the tire fire that are still active. A company has been contracted to monitor the temperature of the debris as it is excavated. Cleanup could take as much as 16 weeks.<br /><br />So far, none of the data collected by IEPA or other officials has been released to the public. The Illinois Attorney General's office has filed an injunction to stop operations at J&amp;R Used Tire Service, based on dangerous levels of air and water pollution.<br /><br />July 31, I've filed an <a href="http://www.epa.state.il.us/foia/">electronic Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request</a> to obtain emails and data and release them to the public. Here's the text from my FOIA:<br /><br /><br /><blockquote><i>Subject Matter: Fire at J&amp;R Tire Service Inc. at 103 Maple St., Ho</i><i><br />Illinois EPA, Division of Records Mgmt/FOIA - <a href="mailto:epa.foia@illinois.gov">epa.foia@illinois.gov</a> - <a href="tel:217%2F782-9290" value="+12177829290">217/782-9290</a>(FAX)</i><i><br />Date From: Jun 19 2013<br />To: <span class="aBn" data-term="goog_706210470" tabindex="0"><span class="aQJ">Jul 31 2013</span></span></i><i><br />Other Information: This FOI request is for all IEPA email correspondence regarding the <span class="aBn" data-term="goog_706210471" tabindex="0"><span class="aQJ">June 19</span></span> fire at J&amp;R Tire Service Inc., located 103 Maple St. in Hoopeston, IL, including correspondence relating to contamination of air, soil, and groundwater, from the first day of the fire on June 19, 2013 to present.Additionally, this FOI requests all data air, water, and soil quality data gathered in Hoopeston, IL for that time period.</i><i><br />Fee Waiver/Reduction Justification: This request is to access and disseminate information regarding the health, safety, and welfare or the legal rights of the general public, as per Section 6(c) of FOIA.</i></blockquote><br />The IEPA has five business days to respond to the request, according to <a href="http://www.ilga.gov/legislation/ilcs/ilcs3.asp?ActID=85&amp;ChapterID=2">Illinois FOIA law</a>. A July 19 email sent to IEPA spokesman Andrew Mason requesting information and comment has not been answered as of yet.<br /><br /><a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2013/07/a-massive-toxic-tire-fire-and-how.html">As I wrote previously</a>, studies of tire combustion show that emissions are comparable with fossil fuel combustion, when tires are burned in a controlled environment. However tire fires which occur in the open air, outside of a controlled environment, emit toxic and cancer-causing chemicals. Some of these chemicals are mutagens, which can damage genetic lineage and continue harm people over many generations.<br /><br />Additionally, I wrote about the importance of a cheap, community-based solution to environmental monitoring, which collects and distributes environmental data independently of government organizations. On this website, I argued that low-cost particulate sensors could be deployed to offer citizens up-to-minute information on what's happening to their community's air.<br /><br />J&amp;R Used Tire Service stored close to 1 million tires at the time of the fire. According to <a href="http://epadata.epa.state.il.us/land/utu/">IEPA's Used Tire Unit (UTU) database</a>, J&amp;R is one of 3,469 registered used tire retailers in Illinois.Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-76668600265476003432013-07-24T09:00:00.000-05:002013-07-24T09:00:02.750-05:00Michigan also faces cutbacks in air quality monitoring, risks violating federal requirments<div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-D-emAjDFEUY/UexP5u5sD5I/AAAAAAAABVE/wv1wfNH02eY/s1600/mdeq.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="252" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-D-emAjDFEUY/UexP5u5sD5I/AAAAAAAABVE/wv1wfNH02eY/s640/mdeq.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br />Illinois isn't the only state facing <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2013/07/illinois-epa-looking-to-cut-back-on-air.html">cutbacks in environmental monitoring</a> due to state and federal budgets. In its annual plan to monitor air quality, Michigan also revealed it is having difficulties keeping its network of air monitors intact.<br /><br />Unlike Illinois, however, Michigan's cutbacks threaten the state's ability to meet federal laws for air monitoring.<br /><br />"The MDEQ (Michigan Department of Environmental Quality) cannot implement all of the new monitoring requirements described above without new funding and a concomitant reduction in other monitoring requirements due to financial and staffing limitations," the state's environmental agency wrote in its 2014 ambient air monitoring network review <a href="http://www.michigan.gov/documents/deq/deq-aqd-aqe-monitoring-network-review-2014_426389_7.pdf">(PDF)</a>.<br /><br /><a name='more'></a>"Although EPA has requested funding to support these endeavors, it is unknown if adequate funds will be made available."<br /><br />The Clean Air Act <a href="http://www.epw.senate.gov/envlaws/cleanair.pdf">(PDF)</a> requires that states publish air monitoring plans each year. It also requires a minimum number of monitors in a state, based on population and previously observed pollution levels.<br /><br />In 2014, the department intends to discontinue one SO2 monitor, five PM2.5 particulate matter monitors, and one PM10 monitor. The network review mentions that MDEQ may have already discontinued a hexavalent chromium monitor in Dearborn, along with an additional PM2.5 monitoring site in Muskegon.<br /><br />Federal law requires five SO2 monitors required in Michigan, but seven operate today. One is scheduled to be discontinued, but MDEQ wrote that operation of all other SO2 monitors is contingent upon "adequate levels of funding."<br /><br />Region 5 air agencies, which include agencies in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin, have jointly written a proposal concerning which monitors may be too expensive to operate.<br /><br />"As funding becomes available or as changes to the NAAQS are finalized, the MDEQ may be able to gradually implement more of the requirements," MDEQ wrote.<br /><br />The air monitoring network review also mentions that monitors in Jenison, Muskegon, Coloma, Cassopolis, and Holland are reading ozone in quantities that violates Nationa Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The Holland monitor, in particular, continually measures the highest O3 values not just in the state, but also the region.Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-42409144761582211462013-07-23T09:00:00.000-05:002013-07-23T09:00:07.740-05:00Witness to Hoopeston tire fire calls experience "bizarre" (photos)<div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-DvHPDxaxpKE/UexIi9G1dZI/AAAAAAAABUk/rCur3YWch7k/s1600/9089113856_7ab3093059_b.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="clear: left; float: left; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="425" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-DvHPDxaxpKE/UexIi9G1dZI/AAAAAAAABUk/rCur3YWch7k/s640/9089113856_7ab3093059_b.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br /><br />Last week, I wrote about a <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2013/07/a-massive-toxic-tire-fire-and-how.html">massive tire fire that burned in the small town of Hoopeston, Ill</a>. In my post, I argued that citizen-based sensor journalism could have helped the community understand the local environmental impact of this man-made disaster.<br /><br />I've sent an email to the IEPA requesting that the agency release the data they collected after the fire. In the meantime, we can assume from scientific studies that the tire fire released pollutants, toxins, cancer-causing chemicals, and even mutagens which can affect genetics thorough generations.<br /><br />After publishing my post, I received a tweet from a follower who was at the scene. <a href="https://twitter.com/RelUnrelated">Dan Johnson,</a> a fellow Urbana, Ill. resident, just received a new camera and thought the Hoopeston tire fire would be an opportunity to try it out. He was shocked by what he saw.<br /><br /><a name='more'></a>"The debris littered yards and streets upwind of the fire. Entire neighborhoods were blocked off to traffic," he wrote in an email. "The amount of smoke in the air was a good enough reason not to want to go through those areas."<br /><br />The fire could be seen from miles away. Bits of burned tires littered the streets. Johnson called it "sort of eerie."<br /><br />"It reminded me of photos from Centralia, Pennsylvania, where everything's been abandoned because of a coal mine fire."<br /><br />I'll have an update when I obtain information from the IEPA on the fire. Photos posted here were obtained from <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/relunrelated/sets/72157634217027143/">Johnson's Flickr account</a>. <br /><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><img border="0" height="426" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-6pzh8UCH424/UexIcA2FQSI/AAAAAAAABT0/c92p7sZqFUY/s640/9086734803_9c751f9cd2_b.jpg" width="640" /> </div><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-AOHjJEvoi1M/UexIf7pWkyI/AAAAAAAABUM/ECs-S1UKMPs/s1600/9086745955_015853eddc_b.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="426" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-AOHjJEvoi1M/UexIf7pWkyI/AAAAAAAABUM/ECs-S1UKMPs/s640/9086745955_015853eddc_b.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-m0FK2Y-FCf4/UexIem9CuEI/AAAAAAAABUA/pYtlcsFIWQg/s1600/9086762587_088f4974f0_b.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="426" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-m0FK2Y-FCf4/UexIem9CuEI/AAAAAAAABUA/pYtlcsFIWQg/s640/9086762587_088f4974f0_b.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Uq6v246iYLs/UexIeQGOx4I/AAAAAAAABT8/SqAsNFJ4w9Q/s1600/9086802573_0c819c04d2_b.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="426" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Uq6v246iYLs/UexIeQGOx4I/AAAAAAAABT8/SqAsNFJ4w9Q/s640/9086802573_0c819c04d2_b.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-H85F9pGGAkw/UexIhKTI2RI/AAAAAAAABUU/bQMOMQxLwJE/s1600/9086810559_0a3ab88123_b.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="426" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-H85F9pGGAkw/UexIhKTI2RI/AAAAAAAABUU/bQMOMQxLwJE/s640/9086810559_0a3ab88123_b.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-6hEwfYCABB4/UexIhbFMv6I/AAAAAAAABUY/NyCbSZSj19M/s1600/9086837573_59a4f31730_b.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="426" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-6hEwfYCABB4/UexIhbFMv6I/AAAAAAAABUY/NyCbSZSj19M/s640/9086837573_59a4f31730_b.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-zMAC64noUmE/UexIjYJLPvI/AAAAAAAABUw/d2BZXbgt6wU/s1600/9089006872_0c4d895e09_b.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="426" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-zMAC64noUmE/UexIjYJLPvI/AAAAAAAABUw/d2BZXbgt6wU/s640/9089006872_0c4d895e09_b.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/--1UlawIs0YM/UexIjPIEhFI/AAAAAAAABUo/dhIix90DIJM/s1600/9089014334_62979d2501_b.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="426" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/--1UlawIs0YM/UexIjPIEhFI/AAAAAAAABUo/dhIix90DIJM/s640/9089014334_62979d2501_b.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br /><br />Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-39457920962395158962013-07-22T09:00:00.000-05:002013-07-22T09:41:17.196-05:00UAVs Pros Cons in Toronto: safety and dialogue are keys to legitimacy<table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-lE4YQp4Ku9Y/UewujTj4xyI/AAAAAAAABSU/z-jv6QRA5pc/s1600/9260662640_8347c716fc_b.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="426" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-lE4YQp4Ku9Y/UewujTj4xyI/AAAAAAAABSU/z-jv6QRA5pc/s640/9260662640_8347c716fc_b.jpg" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Ian Hannah of Avrobotics.ca displayed his professional hexcopter at the UAVs Pros Cons Symposium in Toronto.</td></tr></tbody></table>One of the biggest drone-related stories to make the rounds is about a little Colorado town that is attempting to institute a $100 reward for anyone who shoots down an unmanned aircraft. I'll not post a link to this story, or name the actual town, since it appears this is little more than a stunt to attract media attention to the town.<br /><br />The townspeople may or may not be "real" about their proposed law, given the likelihood of people being injured by gunfire or falling drones, but fear of unmanned aircraft systems (dronephobia?) is real. This fear is rooted in a disconnect between popular media, and the actual uses and potential for the technology.<br /><br />UAVs Pros-Cons was an effort bring expert knowledge to the public, while at the same time providing a discussion of many of the legitimate concerns over drones and their uses.<br /><br /><a name='more'></a>Hosted June 30 at Ryerson University's Ted Rogers School of Business Management in downtown Toronto, this was the first public event organized by <a href="http://dronesforgood.com/">DronesForGood</a>.<br /><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-fXu4Eud5WEw/Uew2B19MORI/AAAAAAAABSk/KnwdFTRNusU/s1600/9260681564_7ed0be44de_b.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="426" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-fXu4Eud5WEw/Uew2B19MORI/AAAAAAAABSk/KnwdFTRNusU/s640/9260681564_7ed0be44de_b.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br />Ian Hannah, a certified pilot and owner/operator of aerial photography provider <a href="http://avrobotics.ca/">Avrobotics.ca</a>, displayed his professional-grade hexcopter, which is equipped with a high-end camera gimbal system for a digital SLR camera. Ian has uploaded some samples of what's possible with his equipment <a href="http://vimeo.com/53530371">on Vimeo</a>.<br /><br />I also brought one of the four fixed-wing drones from the Drones for Schools initiative, which is one of the 32 programs originating from the five-year National Science Foundation grant EnLiST (Entrepreneurial Leadership in STEM Teaching and learning). These unmanned aircraft are designed to take <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2012/10/journalism-drone-development-aerial.html">aerial photo mosaics and photomaps</a>.<br /><br />Ian and I answered questions, and gave talks on drones and their many peaceful uses in media, agriculture, and scientific research.&nbsp; For the final talk of the symposium, I explored the portrayal of drones in the media, how that clashes with reality, and discussed the origin of the word "drone." I also gave examples of how drones can provide communities valuable data in times of crisis, and what kind of special ethical considerations drone journalists may have to consider.<br /><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-5G4BrYxDzNA/Uew2NUQHf0I/AAAAAAAABSs/PQNqI9Xfzfc/s1600/9257876259_f1c138f802_b.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="426" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-5G4BrYxDzNA/Uew2NUQHf0I/AAAAAAAABSs/PQNqI9Xfzfc/s640/9257876259_f1c138f802_b.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br /><a href="https://plus.google.com/104307416163554478812/posts">Nikola Danaylov</a> of the <a href="http://www.singularityweblog.com/">Singularity Weblog</a> documented the talks, and posted them free to the public. More info about the symposium is available on the <a href="http://uberveillance.com/uav-pros-cons">Ubverveillance blog. </a><br /><br />In talking with Ian at the symposim, there was one message which seemed most urgent. He described to me how he was once invited by a colleague out to a soccer field, which are fairly common around airports given how the noise level makes most development unsuitable.<br /><br /><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="float: left; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-NhF7oBGdpyY/Uew610Ixp-I/AAAAAAAABTE/Cuo2G--3tZE/s1600/9260687952_68bf870548_b.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="426" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-NhF7oBGdpyY/Uew610Ixp-I/AAAAAAAABTE/Cuo2G--3tZE/s640/9260687952_68bf870548_b.jpg" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://ramonapringle.com/">Ramona Pringle</a>, a professor of media at Ryerson, facilitated the public discussion on UAVs at the symposium.</td></tr></tbody></table>This person had a drone, and a rather expensive one. Ian estimated it was worth about $10,000. His colleague fired up the motors, and the drone immediately rose into the airspace near the airport, dashed over a busy road, and crashed nearby. It was all over fairly quick.<br /><br />We have a <a href="http://www.dronejournalism.org/wiki/code-of-ethics">code of ethics</a> which we abide by on DroneJournalism.org, which specifically mentions that an operator must be familiar with his aircraft and operate it in a safe fashion. Obviously, there are going to be people who do not use common sense when operating these devices.<br /><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-odQEbJ3giKU/Uew6f0rZqvI/AAAAAAAABS8/Cile7LNQHXg/s1600/9258154319_b446397955_b.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="426" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-odQEbJ3giKU/Uew6f0rZqvI/AAAAAAAABS8/Cile7LNQHXg/s640/9258154319_b446397955_b.jpg" width="640" /></a></div><br />Ian is a proponent of certification, and after hearing about that incident, I have to say I'm a proponent as well. There are concerns in the UAV community that such a regulatory structure could be manipulated by "big players," which would needlessly direct people to specific, expensive hardware, thus blocking access to the skies.<br /><br />Should everyone own a drone? Given the things I've seen and heard, I'm not so sure. We have public roads, but we don't let just anyone drive on them.<br /><br /><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="float: left; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-jHy3eZlr0l0/Uew8hVnWzQI/AAAAAAAABTU/wbRIvx-wav8/s1600/9260914398_dd593b483f_b.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="426" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-jHy3eZlr0l0/Uew8hVnWzQI/AAAAAAAABTU/wbRIvx-wav8/s640/9260914398_dd593b483f_b.jpg" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">University of Toronto professor <a href="http://www3.fis.utoronto.ca/faculty/clement/">Andrew Clement</a> spoke about the lack of compliance on private security cameras, and how drone surveilance could even further complicate this situation.</td></tr></tbody></table><br />One thing I am sure about is the operational environment needs a lot of improvement in terms of safety. Without a safe operating record, journalists and small unmanned operators will have an exceptionally difficult time persuading the public to let us fly. And this is on top of all the sensationalist reports we've been struggling against.<br /><br />I write a lot about openness of data on this website. Adding certifications may restrict some from flying, but that doesn't mean that the data those aircraft obtain has to be closed-source. The key might prove to be skilled operators, but who fly in the public interest by keeping their data available on the internet.<br /><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-vsi000d0i8I/Uew-VFIWRuI/AAAAAAAABTk/w9RvRpGXcqo/s1600/9258076637_726d4e15e0_b.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="426" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-vsi000d0i8I/Uew-VFIWRuI/AAAAAAAABTk/w9RvRpGXcqo/s640/9258076637_726d4e15e0_b.jpg" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://www.ryerson.ca/mba/experience/faculty/bios/levin_avner.html">Avner Levin</a>, Chair of the Law &amp; Business Department at the Ted Rogers School of Management at Ryerson University, speaking about "drones for bad" and the threat to privacy.</td></tr></tbody></table>UAVs Pros Cons was sponsored by in part by DroneJournalism.org and DronesForGood.com. Ryerson University and the <a href="http://www.ryerson.ca/tedrogersschool/privacy/">Privacy &amp; Cyber Crime Institute at the Ted Rogers School of Business Management </a>provided patronage of this event. Convenors for this event included Katina Michael <a href="http://works.bepress.com/kmichael/">(Wollongong)</a>, Alexander Hayes (<a href="http://dronesforgood.com/">DronesForGood.com</a>), Susannah Sabine (<a href="http://dronesforgood.com/">DronesForGood.com</a>), Rob Manson (<a href="http://mob-labs.com/index.html">MOBLabs</a>), Jai Galliot (<a href="http://jaigalliott.com/">jaigalliott.com</a>), and myself.<br /><br />Photos here are courtesy of Alexander Hayes, via <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/mobology/">Flickr</a>. Below are video from talks by Ian and myself. More videos are available on the Singularity Weblog. <br/><br/><iframe width="640" height="360" src="//www.youtube.com/embed/nvs39IHYQS0" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe><br/><br/><iframe width="640" height="360" src="//www.youtube.com/embed/T6p-zGguE3g" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-21237747860758531282013-07-17T10:00:00.000-05:002013-07-17T10:00:04.431-05:00A massive, toxic tire fire, and how citizen sensor journalism could have informed a community in crisis.<table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-k5bQ1r071cw/UeMM24Nq7BI/AAAAAAAABRY/f83h2h4I3g4/s1600/Hoopeston+tire+fire+JonathonLinares.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="524" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-k5bQ1r071cw/UeMM24Nq7BI/AAAAAAAABRY/f83h2h4I3g4/s640/Hoopeston+tire+fire+JonathonLinares.jpg" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">A fire at a tire disposal plant in the small town of Hoopeston, Ill., polluted the skies for hours. Photo by @JonathonLinares.</td></tr></tbody></table>At 5:30 am on Wedneday, June 19, a spark generated by static electricity at J&amp;R Used Tire Service started a fire that would black out the sky for miles around the small town of Hoopeston, Ill.<br /><br />Initial reports from fire crews suggested the fire could burn for days.<a href="http://www.news-gazette.com/news/local/2013-06-20/hoopeston-tire-fire-under-control.html"> By the time it was extinguished the next day,</a> more than 100 firefighters from two states had come to snuff the tire fire, about 500 homes had been evacuated, and rail service through the town was shut down.<br /><br /><a href="http://will.illinois.edu/news/story/update-hoopeston-residents-impacted-by-fire-return-home">According to the Champaign-Urbana NPR affiliate WILL,</a> state environmental officials requested that the state's attorney general to issue a court order to stop the business until it's determined how the fire started, how safe the business is, and what kind of environmental impact this fire had on the community.<br /><br />The Illinois Environmental Protection Agency seems primarily concerned with the air and water at the moment. A tremendous amount of water was used to extinguish the blaze, and that water has been contaminated with the byproducts of burning tires.<br /><br />Obviously, there's a great deal of burning material that was sent into the air. IEPA has been monitoring the air in <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoopeston,_IL">Hoopeston</a> (pop. 5,321), but that data hasn't been made public on any sort of accessible website.<br /><br /><a name='more'></a>We can, however, make an educated guess as to the condition of that town's air during the fire. When tires are burned in an incomplete combustion, such as an open tire fire, they release 16 known carcinogenic compounds, according to a 1997 EPA-commissioned report <a href="http://www.epa.gov/ttn/catc/dir1/tire_eng.pdf">(PDF)</a>.<br /><br />"In particular, the presence and magnitude of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is of major concern," the report concluded. "BaP is often a highly-scrutinized compound during evaluations of combustion processes, due to its high cancer potency."<br /><br />Tire fires also give off massive amounts of mutagens, or compounds that not only can cause cancer, but also birth defects, miscarriages, and "an increased incidence of genetic disease in future generations and contribute to somatic cell diseases, including cancer, in the present generation." (Amdur, 1991)<br /><br />It's not just the presence, but the sheer quantity of mutagens that makes tire fires so dangerous to human health. The amount of mutagens to come out of incomplete tire combustion dwarfs emissions from all other known combustible compounds. The report quotes a 1992 paper by Lemieux and DeMarini:<br /><br />"The mutagenic emission factor for open tire burning is the greatest of any other combustion emission studied previously. For example, it is 3-4 orders of magnitude greater than the mutagenic emission factors for the combustion of oil, coal, or wood in utility boilers."<br /><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-n69wWHMw-Es/UeMgMM6vpyI/AAAAAAAABRo/xZ5XVH5WSqQ/s1600/Dustduino.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="424" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-n69wWHMw-Es/UeMgMM6vpyI/AAAAAAAABRo/xZ5XVH5WSqQ/s640/Dustduino.jpg" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">A prototype of the DustDuino, an Arduino-based Wifi sensor node for airborne particulates.</td></tr></tbody></table>Any air and water data could have helped the community stay informed as the fire happened. But we don't live in a world where we have ubiquitous sensors, especially not in a rural community with a population little over 5,000.<br /><br />It doesn't have to be that way. <a href="http://blog.safecast.org/">Safecast</a> has proven that the DIY movement can respond to catastrophe by developing solutions on the fly, even to massive events such as the Fukushima meltdown of 2011. That also was an event where there was little government data to go on.<br /><br />Here on this website, I'm documenting the development of a low-cost air quality sensor called the <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2013/05/dustduino-plan-to-crowdsource.html">DustDuino</a>. Some preliminary testing shows it to be fairly responsive to changes in the number of airborne particulates (namely PM 10, or particulates measuring greater than 10 micrometers in diameter). Most of the hardware and code has been ironed out at this point, and now a fully-wireless version of this sensor node is being tested that could operate outdoors on solar power alone.<br /><br />The hope is that as the availability of this low-cost tech increases, more solutions like the DustDuino will be distributed with the help of the community. These nodes could retrieve very helpful information <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2013/07/illinois-epa-looking-to-cut-back-on-air.html">at a time when government cutbacks mean fewer operational air-quality meters.</a><br /><br />I frequently write about drones and unmanned vehicles on this website, so it would only be fitting to end with video of a remote-controlled tracked vehicle that was brought out to fight the Hoopeston tire fire:<br /><br /><br /><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="360" src="//www.youtube.com/embed/Rv7UnvUOI48" width="640"></iframe> Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-25227921643440351782013-07-15T10:00:00.000-05:002013-07-15T10:43:56.701-05:00Illinois EPA looking to cut back on air monitoring<div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-o8FIDDKqOm0/Ud8-AvmvOcI/AAAAAAAABRE/byOq6vsLfwE/s1600/IEPA-logo.png" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="560" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-o8FIDDKqOm0/Ud8-AvmvOcI/AAAAAAAABRE/byOq6vsLfwE/s640/IEPA-logo.png" width="640" /></a></div>Facing the prospect of budget cuts, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency has drafted plans to reduce the number of air quality sensors throughout the state.<br /><br />The 2014 Ambient Air Monitoring Plan, drafted in May by the IEPA, recommends that the agency discontinue one sulfur monitoring site, one particulate matter monitor, and three lead monitoring sites.<br /><br />"The proposed 2014 network plan provides select discontinuations from the plan approved by US EPA and operated in 2013,"<a href="http://www.epa.state.il.us/air/monitoring/2014/air-monitoring-network-plan.pdf"> the plan reads (PDF).</a> "The design of the monitoring network for 2014 has also been based upon the assumption that funding to support the monitoring program is likely to be reduced in fiscal year 2014 and that all efforts would be made to keep as much of the network intact as possible."<br /><br />The particulate matter monitor is located atop Washington High School in the South Side of Chicago, one of the more polluted parts of the city. It specifically measures the amount of particles under 10 micrometers in diameter, known as PM 10, <a href="http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/aqtrnd95/pm10.html">which can damage lung tissue, cause cancer, and lead to death.</a><br /><br />According to the IEPA's <a href="http://www.epa.state.il.us/air/air-quality-report/2011/index.html">2011 annual air report</a> (2012 and 2013 reports are not available from the website), this was the same monitoring station that observed the highest annual average concentration of airborne cadmium and sulfur in the state for that year.<br /><br /><a name='more'></a>It also was the site that recorded both the highest 24-hour average and the highest annual average of nitrates in 2011. And out of the five PM 10 monitors in the state, the Washington monitor recorded the second-highest 24-hour sample of particulates.<br /><br />The lead monitor at the Washington site will be one of the three to be removed. The lead monitor at the Perez Elementary School, which Little Village and Pilsen residents lobbied the state to install after finding unhealthy levels of lead in the ground <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2011/08/four-sisters-one-rare-disorder-battle.html">(covered in my series "Battle in the Barrio")</a>, will remain.<br /><br />Additionally, the IEPA is considering discontinuing the sulfur dioxide monitor in Decatur. That city is home to a major feed processing plant operated by Archer Daniels Midland that has been the subject of environmental lawsuits.<br /><br /><a href="http://www.epa-echo.gov/cgi-bin/get1cReport.cgi?tool=echo&amp;IDNumber=110001854468">ADM's 3601 East Division Street complex</a> is designated in the EPA's Toxic Release Inventory as a <a href="http://www.epa-echo.gov/echo/faq.html#in_violation">"High Priority Violator"</a> of the federal Clean Air Act. It's last EPA inspection was 933 days ago, and it's been classified as having "significant non-compliance" issues for at least the past 3 years.<br /><br />In the latest TRI data for on- and off-site toxic releases, ADM reported releasing more than 180,000 pounds of sulfuric acid on-site. <a href="http://www.dhs.wisconsin.gov/eh/chemfs/fs/SulfurDioxide.htm">Sulfur dioxide is an intermediary to sulfuric acid,</a> the major component of acid rain.<br /><br />In 2003, the <a href="http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2003/April/03_enrd_216.htm">Justice Department won a lawsuit</a> against ADM in which the company lost an estimated $340 million over CAA violations in 16 states. The EPA reported that ADM would have to <a href="http://www.epa.gov/compliance/enforcement/air/cases/adm.html">reduce its SO2 pollution by 11,000 tons annually</a>. The civil penalty in that case was $4.6 million.<br /><br />The IEPA's 2014 annual ambient air monitoring plan notes that these changes would not affect federal compliance. IEPA will continue to meet or exceed the required number and variety of air monitors. For example, IEPA operates 30 ozone monitors throughout the state, whereas USEPA requires just 16.<br /><br />IEPA accepted public comment on their plans until June 28.Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-19000158476161515482013-07-11T15:19:00.001-05:002013-07-11T16:09:33.958-05:00Why the word "drone" is scaring neighbors, creating bad legislation, and blocking an economic boom.<table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-ZKl3wfLK4Z8/Ud4FDb_OAII/AAAAAAAABQQ/4lOPwB37LF0/s1600/ROTD.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="234" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-ZKl3wfLK4Z8/Ud4FDb_OAII/AAAAAAAABQQ/4lOPwB37LF0/s640/ROTD.jpg" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><i>Sensationalist coverage and fabricated illustrations have cemented the word "drone" as a weapon in the public psyche. But it may not be too late to change public opinion about the technology behind the word.</i></td></tr></tbody></table><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"></div>A few years ago, a colleague and her husband, an ex-helicopter pilot, realized a tectonic shift was disrupting industries in which they had devoted entire careers.<br /><br />This disruption had a passing resemblance to what happened to other American industries. The hard work once done by skilled, human hands was now being automated by the calculating actuators of a machine.<br /><br />Automation had long since dominated the appliance, automotive, and electronics industries. But this was a brand new territory – aviation.<br /><br />The reduced price and size, and the increased reliability and capability of processors, sensors and batteries meant unmanned aviation had been unleashed. A nouveau DIY revolution meant that basements and garages were once again incubating nascent technology, just as they did in the 1970s when the personal computer was being developed.<br /><br />The silver lining is that the cost of search and rescue, disaster relief, monitoring wildlife, guarding endangered animals from being poached, and even medication delivery to underserved populations all could be slashed.<br /><br />Like many other small startups in the unmanned aviation industry, my friend and her husband saw an opportunity. And despite criticism of slow progress on regulations, the Federal Aviation Administration also sees it. The FAA estimates that the market for commercial unmanned aerial systems will eventually reach $90 billion.<br /><br />The Association for Unmanned Vehicles and Systems International (AUVSI) believes there will be an economic impact of $13.6 billion within 3 years that unmanned aircraft are integrated into the national airspace.<br /><br />Where to start? What better way to get acquainted to the industry than attend one of the premier industry conference in the nation, hosted by AUVSI?<br /><br />She learned about new applications for unmanned aircraft. She listened to a UAV operator who used his homemade robotic aircraft to assess flood damage in Thailand. The information gathered from the aerial vehicle allowed the government to make decisions that mitigated flooding in the country’s capital.<br /><br />This was great. But when it came to talk shop, things became awkward when she used a five-letter word that began with the letter “d.”<br /><br />“The conversation would just stop,” she said. “Just completely stop dead.”<br /><br /><a name='more'></a>Industry regulars avoid the term, and there’s good reason for it. Commercial media has used the word “drone” to describe the aerial vehicles that rain Hellfire missiles on insurgents and innocents in Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Yemen.<br /><br />Those news reports don’t exactly lend themselves to a positive first impression of unmanned technology. Nevertheless, this is the way many Americans have learned about this innovation.<br /><br /><h2>A Predator for your very own</h2><br />To make matters worse, the commercial media capitalizes on the sensationalism of the word to get page hits for benign domestic gadgets.<br /><br />“For $300 — so we’re not talking peanuts, but we’re not talking $20,000,000 either — you can have your very own spybot! They’ve been around for more than a year now,” wrote the American radio journalist Robert Krulwitch. “Why should the Air Force, the CIA, the police and the border patrol have these things and not the rest of us?”<br /><br />He’s actually reviewing a consumer product called the AR.Drone, which is a remote-controlled, quad-rotor vehicle that you can control with a Wi-Fi enabled tablet or smart phone. The toy transmits video from an integrated 720p camera to the controlling device, allowing the pilot to see the toy’s “point of view,” or POV.<br /><br />Gizmodo went farther, publishing a review with the link-baiting title “Your own private predator.”<br /><br />“Holy shit. I’ve got my own flying drone,” wrote Gizmodo’s Joel Johnson. “I’m basically the CIA and a spaceman all in one civilian package. I’m going to fly a drone, I’m going to get arrested, and I’m going to be a hero.”<br /><br />Under a section called “Who’s it for,” Johnson opined: “Aviation dabblers who want to look over their neighbors’ fences.”<br /><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-x1BIC2LRtEk/Ud4GLLiWYCI/AAAAAAAABQg/gwTHKFKfVWQ/s1600/AR+Drone+EnLiST.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="358" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-x1BIC2LRtEk/Ud4GLLiWYCI/AAAAAAAABQg/gwTHKFKfVWQ/s640/AR+Drone+EnLiST.jpg" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><i>Piloting the AR.Drone in front of STEM educators associated with the EnLiST National Science Foundation Grant. I flew the toy helicopter through a door to signal the beginning of the annual dinner.</i></td></tr></tbody></table>In his breathless review, he failed to mention the AR.Drone’s major limitations. The camera quality is on par with cell phones from a half-decade ago, and it is incapable of pan, tilt, or zoom. The range of the device is about 95 feet from the operator. On stock batteries, it can fly for only about 8 minutes. It is incapable of lifting much of anything.<br /><br />And if it’s raining, or there’s a mild breeze? Forget it.<br /><br />The details about these limitations are typically buried deep into the product reviews. But an MQ-9 Reaper, it is not. My brother in-law, an ex-Air Force reservist who repaired electric systems on Reapers, chuckled at my wing of “drones.”<br /><br />Perhaps one of the greatest transgressions comes from the February 11 issue of Time magazine. The cover features a fully-armed Predator drone, buzzing what is ostensibly a family home somewhere in suburban America.<br /><br />Time betrayed its readers for a number of reasons. For one, Predators operate at a much higher altitude when on a strike mission. Secondly, the scenario depicted was no more or less likely than a fully-armed F-16 buzzing an American home (which, by the way, can carry up to 17,000 pounds of munitions, instead of the Predator’s 200 pounds).<br /><br />But Time’s biggest folly was that the cover illustration was a complete fabrication. In its pursuit for profit,<i> it introduced to many technically illiterate people a potentially life-saving technology as a killing machine.</i><br /><br />To some extent, it’s always been like this. As I wrote for the Canadian International Council (http://opencanada.org/features/the-think-tank/comments/drones-for-good/), Nikola Tesla was dogged by this perception when the first drone was on display in Madison Square Garden.<br /><br />“[Tesla’s] audience, baffled and scared by the demonstration, likely had little or no previous exposure to radio technology. It would be nearly a decade until the first public radio broadcast, a live transmission from the Metropolitan Opera House,” I wrote.<br /><br />“A New York Times reporter asked the question that would dog the technology from that day on: What of the military applications for the tiny electric boat? ‘You do not see there a wireless torpedo,’ Tesla replied, offended by the reporter’s suggestion. ‘You see there the first of a race of robots, mechanical men who will do the laborious work of the human race.’”<br /><br /><h2>What's a drone, really?</h2><br />To get to the bottom of this, it’s important not just to understand why the word “drone” is a pejorative, but what it actually means in the first place.<br /><br />A logical first place is a dictionary, which usually requires that a drone A) is a plane or boat that is unmanned, and B) is controlled remotely. There’s nothing about autonomy or semi-autonomy. And here, as in Tesla’s device, there is not a single word about military application.<br /><br />The etymology of the word dates back to the interwar period, according to Laurence Newcome’s “Unmanned Aviation: A Brief History of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.”<br /><br />Britain’s Royal Air Force needed an aerial target to hone the dogfighting skills of its aviators. Because of the perilousness of being shot at, the aerial target needed to be unmanned.<br /><br />The RAF began converting a DeHaviland biplane, called the Queen Bee, into an unmanned, remote-controlled aerial target. It only was a short jump in the insect world to come up with “drone,” as in a bee whose only job is to mate with the queen and create more little bees.<br /><br />Newcome also wrote that an American armed services officer in 1936 inexplicably began calling these unmanned aerial targets “drones” as well.<br /><br />A drone inside of the aviation industry means something completely different than what the media describes. Gary Mortimer, founder of the unmanned systems news website sUASnews.com, remembers the word from his days in the RAF.<br /><br />“During my time in the RAF, drones were things you shot at,” Mortimer said.<br /><br />I emailed Melanie Hinton, AUVSI Communications Manager, about the word and asked her to clarify if and how the industry uses it. Apparently the industry does, in fact, use the word “drone,” but it’s an entirely different context than the media portrays.<br /><br />“Our pubs team here actually do use the word drone to mean target drone,” Hinton replied.<br /><br />“The reasons we say UAS [Unmanned Aerial System] are 1) they are smarter than those target drones of yore and 2) by just acknowledging the vehicle itself, you’re completely leaving out at lot of the comms and other smarts that aren’t housed on board, which is why it’s called an unmanned aerial system, emphasis on the system,” she added.<br /><br />The FAA has adopted the term UAS as well. According to the federal agency’s Aeronautical Information Manual, or AIM, the dimensions and flight characteristics of UAS can vary greatly:<br /><br />“Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), formerly referred to as ‘Unmanned Aerial Vehicles’ (UAVs) or ‘drones,’ are having an increasing operational presence in the NAS [National Airspace System]. Once the exclusive domain of the military, UAS are now being operated by various entities,” reads the federal agency’s AIM, or Aeronautical Information Manual.<br /><br />The FAA recognizes many varieties of unmanned aircraft. UAS aren’t defined by size, weight, configuration, or power source, according to the manual. They are, however, defined by having a ground-based crew.<br /><br />“Although these aircraft are ‘unmanned,’ UAS are flown by a remotely located pilot and crew. Physical and performance characteristics of unmanned aircraft (UA) vary greatly and unlike model aircraft that typically operate lower than 400 feet AGL, UA may be found operating at virtually any altitude and any speed,” the AIM continues.<br /><br />“Sizes of UA can be as small as several pounds to as large as a commercial transport aircraft. UAS come in various categories including airplane, rotorcraft, powered-lift (tilt-rotor), and lighter-than-air. Propulsion systems of UAS include a broad range of alternatives from piston powered and turbojet engines to battery and solar-powered electric motors.”<br /><br />Drone is not an acronym. It doesn’t require the technical background necessary to discern a “vehicle” from a “system.” And perhaps most important for click-baiting commercial media, it’s a concise, sinister-sounding word.<br /><br />Unfortunately for the people trying to use this technology for good, this catch-all word doesn’t provide enough context to differentiate between MQ-1 Predators, and the kinds of aerial robots that could deliver vital medicine, boost crop yields, assist disaster recovery, protect endangered animals and save lost children.<br /><br /><h2>"Aren't there already laws to prevent that?"</h2><br />This narrow definition has consequences. Fueled by an erroneous report that the EPA had used a drone to monitor for pollution (it was an airplane, actually, which the Supreme Court of the United States had ruled constitutional), small-government conservatives and anti-police state liberals joined forces in a rare instance of bipartisan agreement to express fear that military hardware will be used to spy on American citizens. <a href="http://www.aclu.org/blog/technology-and-liberty/status-domestic-drone-legislation-states">At least 42 states</a> have drafted bills that would severely limit, or outlaw outright, the use of unmanned systems <br /><br />Most of these states are pursuing legislation that would restrict law enforcement from using unmanned aircraft only if a search warrant is granted. Others are looking to ban aerial photography completely, or require that UAS operators obtain the consent of landowners before filming. These bills typically make use the word “drone,” and provide a definition that includes most UAS.<br /><br />In response to the recent wave of news and legislation, hobbyists and other small businesses with UAS have appealed to the internet and to mainstream media to save the technology.<br /><br />A duo of UAS operators called the Roswell Flight Test Crew put together a YouTube video in protest of Oregon’s SB71, which would have outlawed any remote-controlled aircraft equipped with a camera.<br /><br />“I don’t want anybody looking in my bedroom window,” said Roswell Flight Test member Patrick Sherman in the video. “But aren’t there already laws to prevent that?”<br /><br />“This bill has been written out of the profound ignorance of the actual facts and issue that surround this emergent technology,” he continued. “But the solution for ignorance isn’t anger or scorn. It’s education and knowledge.”<br /><br />Sherman and his Roswell colleague Brian Zvaigzne also appeared at a hearing for SB71 and provided a written testimony that warned of a double-standard for manned and unmanned aircraft.<br /><br />“This appears to be nothing more than a reflexive response to the hypothesis that ‘drones are scary.’” Sherman and Zvaigzne wrote. “UAS, to give them their proper designation, are the same as any other instrument yet devised by humans.”<br /><br />“They can be used for either good or evil, but to demonize the technology itself will only serve to damage Oregon’s standing in the ongoing nationwide competition to determine where this industry of the future will make its home.”<br /><br />In Australia, a country that established its unmanned aircraft regulations in 1998 with CASR Part 101, a 40-year veteran of the remote controlled aircraft hobby appealed to fellow hobbyists to stop calling their equipment “drones.”<br /><br />“Another thing we should do is whenever we are talking with the media, we do not call these things drones,” said Bruce Simpson of RCModelReviews.com “Drones has a very negative connotation.”<br /><br />“Whenever you say drones to somebody who has been watching the news, they think of the predator firing missiles at hapless Iraqis and Afghanis in the desert and killing them. That’s giving drones a bit of a bad rap.”<br /><br />The radio controlled aircraft that Simpson and other hobbyists use are nearly identical to the aircraft used by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation and Fox. The biggest difference is that professionals generally use larger motors and batteries, more elaborate camera gimbals, and higher-end cameras and lenses.<br /><br />At least one community has thrived on not just the word “drone,” but also on iconography that echoes the “shock and awe” of militarized unmanned aircraft.<br /><br /><h2>&nbsp;"... we’ve made it clear that’s not what we’re about.”</h2><br />The online community of DIYDrones.com <a href="http://diydrones.com/profiles/blogs/diy-drones-at-40-000-members">recently celebrated its 40,000th member</a>. It regularly makes 62,000 page hits daily, and occasionally exceeds 2 million page hits in a month.<br /><br />Despite those impressive numbers, not all members agree with the community’s name, or how other members use “drone.” Some view the word as an inaccurate distortion, while others go so far as to say it’s a click-baiting tactic to move a product.<br /><br />These individuals believe use of the word could undermine the community, the hobby, and could scare others away from a beneficial technology. <br /><br />“There are those in this community who advocate embracing the ‘drone’ moniker and to simply go with the media tide,” one member commented. “By and large, these are people who are heavily invested in the word ‘drone’ for fairly self-serving reasons.”<br /><br />“I think this is a big mistake, and the bigger industry guys do as well.”<br /><br />Members have variously proposed “aerial robots,” “aerobots,” “RC aircraft,” “robotic aircraft,” in addition to the industry-approved acronyms UAS and UAV, as reasonable substitutes for “drone.”<br /><br />“Perhaps the worst thing about this group is what has turned out to be an unfortunate choice of names,” another DIYDrones member wrote.<br /><br />Chris Anderson, who founded the DIYDrones community, left his post as editor in chief of <i>Wired</i> magazine to run his startup, 3D Robotics, full-time. In their pursuit of the aerial robotics hobby, DIYDrones members have churned out a considerable amount of code and innumerable hours of development which benefitted Anderson’s line of open-source autopilots.<br /><br />Anderson doesn’t seem likely to stop using the “drone” word. He’s said before that the defining characteristic of a drone is its autonomy. But he’s also aware about the potential hazards of associating his community’s robots with the unmanned aircraft that are bombing insurgents in foreign lands.<br /><br />For a long time, the banner for DIYDrones.com contained an illustration of an unmanned aircraft system that bore a striking resemblance to the General Atomics Reaper. In 2010, it underwent a design change to appear more like Ikhana, a Reaper that was obtained by NASA, de-clawed, and turned into a test bed for unmanned technologies. The Ikhana was deployed to monitor a California wildfire in 2007.<br /><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-rNcUR6Umr9w/Ud4LWgIkacI/AAAAAAAABQs/UMCFgdMR-oU/s1600/DIYDrones+old+banner.PNG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="100" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-rNcUR6Umr9w/Ud4LWgIkacI/AAAAAAAABQs/UMCFgdMR-oU/s640/DIYDrones+old+banner.PNG" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><i>Old DIY Drones banner, with a red slash-through.</i></td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-3o4u5bPFbIo/Ud4L44M8GII/AAAAAAAABQ0/8p9--Hp_kDM/s1600/DIYDrones+new+banner.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="128" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-3o4u5bPFbIo/Ud4L44M8GII/AAAAAAAABQ0/8p9--Hp_kDM/s640/DIYDrones+new+banner.jpg" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><i>New DIY Drones banner, sans the Predator look-alike.</i></td></tr></tbody></table><br />“Well, until there is a better known UAV, we’re going to stick with this one,” Anderson wrote on DIYDrones at the time. “As long as most drones are military, people will make that correlation, but we’ve made it clear that’s not what we’re about.”<br /><br />In February, Anderson launched a contest to re-design the header. One of the design criteria was that “it should look cool and ‘drone-like’ but not look military or threatening.”<br /><br />The website now sports a banner with multirotor, fixed-wing, and rover vehicles. None of them bear a passing resemblance to military equipment.<br /><br />Changing the word from “drone” to “UAS” may not fundamentally narrow the knowledge gap between the industry and the public. After all, even if the media is using the technically accurate term UAS to describe the aircraft that are bombing the area between Afghanistan and Pakistan, it’s still a UAS doing the bombing.<br /><br />But at least using a technically accurate term opens the door to a more intelligent conversation about the technology, and one that isn’t burdened by years of association with death and destruction. It’s a chance to revise an overly-specific and incorrect definition.<br /><br />In other words: these aren’t drones. They’re unmanned aircraft.<br /><br />Marc Corcoran, a foreign correspondent for ABC who is studying UA applications for journalism, reported AUVSI’s chairman might be giving up on the word “drone”:<br /><blockquote class="tr_bq"><br />Speaking at the Avalon International Air Show, AUVSI's chairman, Australian Peter Bale, said: “I’m going to roll over on this one, and call them drones from now on. There are just some fights you are not going to win.”</blockquote><br />I contacted Hinton for clarification.<br /><br />“AUVSI will continue to call them UAS, unmanned aircraft systems,” she replied.<br /><br />Even if AUVSI doesn’t adopt the nomenclature, Bale is an important voice who represents the “other side” of the drone debate within the industry. Namely, that drone is here to stay, and it’s more productive to try to change the perception than to adopt a technical acronym.<br /><br />There are signs that public opinion is shifting. New Hampshire, a state that attempted to ban all aerial and satellite photography, tabled its drone bill. Oregon changed its drone bill to regulate only police use of unmanned aircraft.<br /><br />But as of September 1 in Texas, the state where a hobby drone uncovered illegal polluting by a meat packing plant,<a href="http://www.legis.state.tx.us/tlodocs/83R/billtext/html/HB00912F.htm"> it will be illegal to take aerial photos of real property without the consent of the owner.</a><br /><br />Interestingly, it will be legal to take aerial photos at “the scene of a spill, or suspected spill.”<br /><br />It’s up to lawyers and courts to interpret what any of that means. Which means that FAA regulations won’t be the end-all-be-all of the unmanned universe.<br /><br />I make no claim of being a lawyer, but public perception won’t be the last hurdle that small operators of unmanned aircraft have to clear.Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-65921794242390651542013-06-18T09:00:00.000-05:002013-07-04T20:38:08.753-05:00Civilian whose drone was shot down over Turkey protests comes back for more video<iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="488" mozallowfullscreen="" src="http://player.vimeo.com/video/68477975" webkitallowfullscreen="" width="650"></iframe> <br />Since May 28, citizens in Turkey have been protesting their government's plan to raze a park in the country's capital, and replace it with a commercial center and military barracks. Violence in Taksim Gezi Park has escalated much since then, with police hitting protesters with tear gas, rubber bullets, and water cannons.<br /><br />On June 13, <a href="http://www.suasnews.com/2013/06/23296/turkish-police-shoot-dow/">I reported on sUASNews.com</a> that a civilian had been filming clashes between police and demonstrators from the sky with an RC aircraft, and that the drone had been shot out of the sky by police.<br /><br />The drone's pilot, who goes by the name <a href="https://twitter.com/Jenk1907">Jenk</a>, was able to capture dramatic footage of the violence from the sky before his aircraft went down on June 11. Video from his DJI Phantom showed billowing smoke, and demonstrators scrambling to find cover from high-pressure water hoses and lobbing back the gas canisters from the riot police.<br /><br />Now, it appears that Jenk has either repaired his drone or found a new one, and has returned to the Gezi Park protests to capture more aerial footage.<br /><br /><a name='more'></a><br />His newest video, posted June 16 on Vimeo, shows what he claims to be a person who was shot by police. His aerial video, which was shot at night, appears to capture a person in a crowd laying prone on the ground.<br /><br />Activists have deployed unmanned aircraft since at least 2011, with drones appearing above Russia, Poland, Estonia, and Argentina (though the drone over the pro-democracy protest in Russia was piloted by professional photographers rather than demonstrators).<br /><br />In February 2012, hunters participating in a canned pigeon shoot in South Carolina downed a small multirotor drone belonging to the animal rights group SHARK (SHowing Animals Respect and Kindness). That drone and its video was recovered, but SHARK activists had informed me in an interview that it was just the latest time hunters had shot at their aircraft.<br /><br />That group of activists is still engaged in a lawsuit with hunters to have another drone retrieved, which was shot down during an incident in 2011. Mike Kobliska, a SHARK activist, recently tweeted that the aircraft still exists in limbo - both in the legal and the physical sense:<br /><br /><blockquote class="twitter-tweet"><a href="https://twitter.com/matthew_ryan">@matthew_ryan</a> <a href="https://twitter.com/sUASnews">@sUASnews</a> No news. The lawsuit is still plodding through the court system. And the UAV still sits in a tree.<br />— Mike Kobliska (@MikeKobliska) <a href="https://twitter.com/MikeKobliska/statuses/345240386865868800">June 13, 2013</a></blockquote><script async="" charset="utf-8" src="//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js"></script> <br /><br />Jenk also has submitted video of his DJI Phantom being shot down over the Gezi Park protests.<br /><br /><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="488" mozallowfullscreen="" src="http://player.vimeo.com/video/68156381" webkitallowfullscreen="" width="650"></iframe> <br /><a href="http://vimeo.com/68156381">Police shot down RC Drone @ Taksim Gezi Park Istanbul</a> from <a href="http://vimeo.com/jenk1907">Jenk K</a> on <a href="http://vimeo.com/">Vimeo</a>.<br /><br /><br />Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-1809759992047203950.post-14784265988945483922013-06-06T12:25:00.000-05:002013-06-06T12:25:19.372-05:00Finding a definition and purpose for sensor journalism at the Tow Center<table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="float: left; margin-right: 1em; text-align: left;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Qlva8jVpxC4/UbCr-yXDy8I/AAAAAAAABLY/ioGq9UJ2Ncc/s1600/towsense+presentation.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="clear: left; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="400" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Qlva8jVpxC4/UbCr-yXDy8I/AAAAAAAABLY/ioGq9UJ2Ncc/s400/towsense+presentation.jpg" width="300" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">#Towsense presentation on mapping mangroves<br />by Aaron Huslage, photo by Moshin Ali (@moshin)</td></tr></tbody></table>Before I left for the Tow Center's sensor journalism workshop at Columbia University last weekend, my wife and I hosted some friends for a spinach lasagna dinner. On the stack of books my wife was researching for her dissertation on toxins in science fiction, sat my latest obsession, the <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2013/05/dustduino-plan-to-crowdsource.html">DustDuino sensor node.</a><br /><br />While we ate, the node's tiny LED lights blinked away as it took particulate matter readings every 30 seconds. A friend pointed out the interesting juxtaposition of the pollution monitor siting on a copy of Rachel Carson's <i>Silent Spring</i>. Our friend's husband, an entomologist, asked what it was all about.<br /><br />"Part of the idea is to have people make these all over the country, especially places with bad air," I said.<br /><br />"Interesting," he said. "You know... that doesn't sound much like journalism," he said. "It sounds like research."<br /><br />I thought about it for a moment, and took a sip of the lemon-and-bourbon cocktail my wife prepared. I didn't have a good answer.<br /><br />"Journalists are kind of unemployed at the moment, so we're looking for other things to do," I replied.<br /><br />For me at least, the Tow Center's workshop helped find an answer to that question, and provide a deffinition and goal for sensor journalism. About 50 folks with backgrounds in <a href="https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0AoWjpTkvitMZdGE2S0FfOHE4ci1HelB4dFM3dTlLUmc#gid=1">journalism, science, architecture, community informatics, and computer technology </a>came to the Tow Center's first sensor journalism workshop on June 1-2.<br /><br />I owe a big debt to the organizers of this event: Emily Bell, the Tow Center director; Fergus Pitt, Tow research fellow; Taylor Owen, Tow research director; along with Laura Kurgan, director of the spatial design lab at Columbia; and Chris Van Der Walt and Sara Jayne Farmer of Change Assembly, Inc.<br /><br /><a name='more'></a><br /><h2>&nbsp;Everything Old is New Again </h2><br /><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="float: right; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-QC7pFaZaiJc/UbCtKBPgQlI/AAAAAAAABLo/-wQj9biMeMc/s1600/BLsscrYCUAAzM24.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-QC7pFaZaiJc/UbCtKBPgQlI/AAAAAAAABLo/-wQj9biMeMc/s1600/BLsscrYCUAAzM24.jpg" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Brainstorming story ideas at the #towsense workshop. Photo by Taylor Owen (@taylor_owen). I'm pictured just left of center, nearest the blue DustDuino cube.</td></tr></tbody></table>In one of the first presentations of the weekend, Mark Hansen of The Brown Institute for Media Innovation pointed out that sensor journalism builds on some very old concepts. <a href="http://www.airforcemag.com/MagazineArchive/Pages/2004/November%202004/1104igloo.aspx">Operation Igloo White</a>, for example, was a US effort during the Vietnam war to drop acoustic- and urine-detecting sensors along the Ho Chi Minh trail. Readings from the network of 20,000 sensors in Vietnam allowed American bombers to hone in on Viet Kong trucks and tanks moving along the trail.<br /><br />Of course, that's not sensor journalism, but rather a military operation. But the goals of sensor journalism projects share much with Igloo White: deploy sensors, collect data, and analyze that data for some greater meaning.<br /><br />It was argued at the workshop that sensor journalism might actually be quite old. Cameras, after all, are sensors. They remotely sense the light levels of the environment, and store that data in the form of an image (either in analog film grain or digital pixels). Our interpretation of the image is data analysis.<br /><br /><a href="https://twitter.com/daeaves">David Eaves</a>, advisor to the Mayor of Vancouver on Open Government and Open Data, argued on his website how sensor journalism is an expected part of the normal, everyday newscast. It may even take up as 5-15% of the news. It's just called <a href="http://eaves.ca/2013/06/02/the-past-present-and-future-of-sensor-journalism/">"the weather."</a><br /><br />"The&nbsp;meteorological&nbsp;group is a part of the news media organization that is completely reliant on sensors to provide it with information which it must analyze and turn into relevant information for its audience," he wrote. "And it is a very specific piece of&nbsp;knowledge that matters to the audience. They are not asking for&nbsp;<i>how&nbsp;</i>the weather came about, but merely and accurate prediction of what the weather will be. For good or (as I feel) for ill, there is not a lot of discussions about climate change on the 6 o’clock news weather report."<br /><br />Eaves pointed out that traffic reports, which rely on various sensors, also qualify for that category of sensor journalism. But because it's mundane, not flashy, and also not inherently <i>risky</i> (more on that concept in a moment), the initial reaction of many would-be sensor journalists might be to ignore it. It's important to learn from that sector's experts, to internalize their methodology and build on it.<br /><br />So sensor journalism probably is not a new concept. The rough deffinition of sensor journalism I gathered was: <i>sensor journalism is a subfield of journalism that relies on sensing devices, and the data obtained from those devices, to arrive at an evidence-based conclusion in the course of a journalism investigation.</i><br /><br />Because drones essentially are just unmanned vehicles on which to place sensors, drone journalism (especially the kind that relies on geospatial data) may very well fall into the wheelhouse of sensor journalism.<br /><br />Yes, there is research involved. But the goal is much broader, and the end product looks much different.<br /><h2>My Sensors Indicate Danger </h2><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-SJMDpzvEJsc/UbCtvcGh9aI/AAAAAAAABLw/WIYd3SH86CA/s1600/Dustduino.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="424" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-SJMDpzvEJsc/UbCtvcGh9aI/AAAAAAAABLw/WIYd3SH86CA/s640/Dustduino.jpg" width="640" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Photo of the DustDuino sensor node. Photo by Jeff Ginger of the CU-Community Fab Lab.</td></tr></tbody></table><br />Speaking of experts, sensor journalists should collaborate with the experts who've been monitoring things with sensors as part of their research. We need to learn about best practices of establishing networks to obtain the most reliable data, and perhaps more importantly, to have a trained eye look over our results to determine if we can be confident in our conclusions.<br /><br />It isn't just good practice, but ethical given the implications of a false positive, and even legally prudent. The workshop was very lucky to mine the expertise of Joanne Irene Gabrynowicz, the director of the <a href="http://www.spacelaw.olemiss.edu/">National Center for Remote Sensing, Air, and Space Law</a> at the University of Mississippi School of Law, during a panel discussion on ethics, law and politics.<br /><br />In her opinion, the best protection against a journalist or publication from legal action resulting from a sensor journalism investigation is to rely on an expert to review the data and analysis. Journalists using sensing devices might be able to establish a solid defense in the courts, so long as those journalists based their investigations on the advice of respected professionals who adopted the best practices of their chosen field.<br /><br />I don't consider myself a techno-optimist, i.e., a person who thinks every advancement in technology unequivocally improves society. Generally, I view the impact most advancements as simply shifting a line between two or more trade-offs. My attention span has diminished greatly since I got my first smartphone, and it's harder than ever to "turn off" work when out of the office. Say nothing of what automation and globalization has done to the blue-collar workforce.<br /><br />Still, I can get giddy when discussing whiz-bang "disruptive" technologies like drones and crowdsourced sensor networks, such that my optimism takes some time to be dulled. The ethics, law and politics panel was helpful for identifying the caveats which should slightly curb my enthusiasm.<br /><br />Sensor journalism relies heavily on data journalism and "big data" practices to make use of all the data that's being sensed. It follows, then, that the same ethical considerations for big data also apply to sensor journalism. <a href="http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/au/5019">Kord Davis</a>, Co-author of Ethics of Big Data, made the point that there are "unknown unknowns" in the world of data collection. The data we obtain from a sensor might seem harmless one day, until someone figures out a way to triangulate that data with other data in order to fingerprint and track a person.<br /><br />To use the immortal words of <a href="http://www.stateofsearch.com/top-15-of-eric-schmidts-remarkable-quotes/">Google's Eric Schmidt,</a> “We know where you are. We know where you’ve been. We can more or less know what you’re thinking about.”<br /><br />Davis' solution was to destroy the data, so that it couldn't live long enough to be used for some kind of nefarious purpose. I think the idea deserves thought. How much of our data should we detail? How long should we hold on to the data? What should we keep, and what should we destroy?<br /><br />Even so, Davis had some optimism about the future. It took Upton Sinclair's <i>The Jungle</i> to change the meat packing industry. It took Carson's <i>Silent Spring</i> for environmentalism to take off in America. Davis said he was still waiting for the equivalent <span class="st">exposé </span>for the age of sensors and big data.<br /><br />There was some talk of the IRB (Institutional Review Board) process for approving research at universities as a method of identifying and resolving ethical issues in sensor journalism investigations. Matt Waite, the founder of <a href="http://www.dronejournalismlab.org/">The University of Nebraska's Drone Journalism Lab,</a> pointed out that IRBs can be an onerous process that may intrude into prior restraint. However, he said, there may be merit in an organized, methodical review process.<br /><h2>Sensor Journalism as a Product of Post-Industrial Journalism</h2><br />Since the people we used to rely on as sources now publish eyewitness accounts on their own, our status as gatekeepers has diminished. Journalists had to pick higher-hanging fruit to feed themselves.<br /><br />Despite the mistakes of Reddit (perhaps none so catastrophic as the crowdsourced attempt to finger the person responsible for the Boston Marathon bombing), it is providing a service in service-deprived areas. In the college town where I live, the UIUC SubReddit routinely provides the scoops and contextualization that local media just can't. Specifically, I'm thinking of a recent car fire, and a suicide in which local Redditors crowdsourced mental health resources.<br /><br />Emily Bell, the Tow Center's director, along with C.W. Anderson and Clay Shirky, wrote and spoke about the fact that we're beginning a new age of journalism, called <a href="http://towcenter.org/research/post-industrial-journalism/">"post-industrial journalism."</a> News will no longer be manufactured in large newsrooms, partly because the advertisement subsidy has been undercut by the internet.<br /><br />Breaking news is now covered by the crowd. There is, as Bell said, no longer "the press."<br /><br />"The speed of uploading images and video, the quality and length of video on camera phones, the ability to stream live events from a phone without a battery of attendant satellite trucks, and the frictionless sharing of all material through social recommendation transform our expectation and experience of news," <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/may/23/woolwich-killing-power-mobile-technology-news">Bell wrote for <i>The Guardian</i>,</a> after the Woolwich killing.<br /><br />"We still know very little about the planning and motivation for the attacks in Woolwich, but we know the tools of recording and dissemination are leading us into a world of streamed events and atrocity which will find us, unfiltered, through the phones in our pockets."<br /><br />Even though I wasn't able to articulate at the dinner party, I knew in my gut that sensor journalism could be part of a larger plan to make us useful again. At the end of my <a href="http://www.mentalmunition.com/2011/09/youre-not-newspaper-youre-intelligence.html">piece on the <i>Page One</i> documentary of the <i>New York Times</i>,</a> I made a comparison between a government intelligence and a news agency.<br /><br />There are big differences, no doubt, but my point was that journalists should be functioning more like an intelligence agency in the sense of providing greater context with a greater understanding and access to scientific approaches. The biggest difference in the product of the intelligence agency and a news agency is the packaging:<br /><blockquote class="tr_bq"><i>The public should be provided these same services. The world is awash in data. What it lacks is understanding. The fourth estate is that it is positioned, more than any other entity, to package that information in the most persistent form to human memory: the narrative.&nbsp;</i> </blockquote>With this in mind, I am a little disheartened that journalists have to resort to sensor journalism to conduct our investigations. After all, should the public, and our sources, need the fourth estate enough that they would just give us the data? But the political economy of the US doesn't work that way, and the media (rightfully so) can't always be trusted. So I am grateful we now have sensor technology at our disposal to help with the heavy lifting.<br /><br />From listening and taking part in the conversation at Columbia, I wouldn't be surprised if a number of those important sensor journalism initiatives come out of the Tow Center.Anonymoushttp://www.blogger.com/profile/14590722372758124411noreply@blogger.com